【环保】中国土壤环境监测方法现状、问题及建议

                         

广东11选5    ZONGSHULEMUQIANZHONGGUOXIANXINGDETURANGHUANJINGJIANCEGUOJIABIAOZHUNFANGFAHEHUANBAO、NONGYE、LINYEDENGXINGYEBIAOZHUNFANGFA,ZHICHUGUOJIABIAOZHUNHEHUANBAOXINGYEBIAOZHUNFANGFACEZHONGYUTURANGWURANWUDEJIANCE,ERNONGYEHELINYEBIAOZHUNFANGFACEZHONGYUTURANGYINGYANGYUANSUJIQIYOUXIAOTAI、LIHUAZHIBIAODEJIANCE。ZHENDUIXIANXINGBIAOZHUNFANGFACUNZAIDEYIXIEWENTI(RUJIANCEDETURANGWURANWUZHONGLEISHAO、BUFENFANGFAXIANJINXINGBUZU、TURANGHUANJINGJIANCEDEJICHUYANJIUBORUOYIJIFANGFADEBIAOZHUNHUASHANGDAIWANSHANDENG),TICHUJIAQIANGTURANGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFADEDINGCENGSHEJI、HELIZENGJIATURANGWURANWUDEKONGZHIZHONGLEI,JISHIGENGXINFANGFA、FAZHANDUOZUFENCEDINGFANGFA,JIAQIANGBIAOZHUNFANGFAYANJIUDEXITONGXING、XIEDIAOXING,YIJIZHUBUZENGJIAYUANWEIJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFADENGJIANYI,WEITURANGJIANCEJISHUDEFAZHANTIGONGJIEJIANHECANKAO。

土壤是经济社会可持续发展的物质基础,关系人民群众身体健康和美丽中国建设,加强土壤环境保护是推进生态文明建设和维护国家生态安全的重要内容。2016年国务院印发的《土壤污染防治行动计划》中,就明确提出完成土壤环境监测等技术规范制修订、形成土壤环境监测能力、建设土壤环境质量监测网络、深入开展土壤环境质量调查、定期对重点监管企业和工业园区周边开展监测等工作任务。监测方法是监测工作的基础,只有完善土壤环境监测方法体系,加强土壤环境监测技术水平,才能保障监测的科学性、规范性、准确性以及评价结果的客观性和合理性,从而掌握土壤环境的真实状况,进一步推进土壤环境监管。

GENJUZHILIANGGUANLITIXIDEYAOQIU,HUANJINGJIANCEYINGYOUXIANXUANYONGBIAOZHUNFENXIFANGFA。ZHONGGUOTURANGBIAOZHUNFENXIFANGFAFENWEIGUOJIABIAOZHUNHEXINGYEBIAOZHUNLIANGDALEI。GUOJIAHEHUANBAOXINGYEBIAOZHUNFANGFACEZHONGTURANGHUANJINGWURANJIANCE,NONGYE、LINYEXINGYEBIAOZHUNFANGFAZEZHUYAOCEZHONGTURANGYINGYANGYUANSUJIQIYOUXIAOTAI、LIHUAZHIBIAODEJIANCE。BIZHEDUIMUQIANZHONGGUOTURANGHUANJINGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFAJINXINGZONGSHU,ZHICHUCUNZAIDEWENTI,BINGTICHUZHENDUIXINGDEJIANYI。

1 TURANGWURANWUJIQIJIANCEFANGFA

TURANGWURANWUBAOKUOWUJIWU(ZHONGJINSHU、SUAN、YANDENG),YOUJIWU,HUAXUEFEILIAO,NONGYAO(SHACHONGJI、SHAJUNJIJICHUCAOJI),FANGSHEXINGWUZHI,JISHENGCHONG,BINGYUANJUNHEBINGDUDENG;JINNIANLAI,YIXIEXINXINGWURANWU(RUSHOUYAO、KANGSHENGSU、XIUHUAZURANJI、QUANFUHUAHEWUDENG)ZAITURANGZHONGDEFUCUN、QIANYIDENGYECHENGWEIYANJIUREDIAN。

目前多数土壤监测方法针对的是土壤中的无机物和有机物,按测定方式可分为2种:采样后实验室测定(又称异位测定)和现场测定(又称原位测定)。

广东11选5SHIYANSHICEDINGFANGFAZHONG,ZHENDUITURANGZHONGDEWUJIWU,YOUGUANGXUEFENXIFA(RUYUANZIXISHOUGUANGPUFA、YUANZIFASHEGUANGPUFA、YUANZIYINGGUANGGUANGPUFA、XSHEXIANYINGGUANGGUANGPUFADENG),YIQILIANYONGFA〔RUDIANGANOUHEDENGLIZITI-ZHIPUFA(ICP-MS)DENG〕,YIJIDIANHUAXUEFA(RUJIPUFENXIFA)HEYITEDINGHUAXUEFANYINGWEIJICHUDEHUAXUEFENXIFANGFA。QIZHONGGUANGXUEFENXIFASHIYONGFANWEIGUANG,LINGMINDUJIAOGAO,CAOZUOBIANJIE,YINGYONGGUANGFAN;YIQILIANYONGFAKESHIXIANDINGXING、DINGLIANGFENXI,JIANCELINGMINDUGAO、ZHONGXIANXINGHAO,DANYIQIJIAOANGGUI;JIPUFAXUANZEXINGHAO,KECEDINGZUFENXIANXINGFANWEIKUAN,NENGSHIXIANLIANXUCEDING,DANYIZAOCHENGGONGWURAN;HUAXUEFENXIFACAOZUOJIANBIAN,DANYANGPINQIANCHULIFUZA,LINGMINDUHEXUANZEXINGDOUJIAODI,MUQIANSHIYONGJIAOSHAO。ZHENDUITURANGZHONGDEYOUJIWU,FENXIFANGFAZHUYAOYOUSEPUFENXIFA〔RUQIXIANGSEPUFA(GC)、GAOXIAOYEXIANGSEPUFA(HPLC)〕,YIJISEPU-ZHIPULIANYONGFA〔RUQIXIANGSEPU-ZHIPUFA(GC-MS)HEGAOXIAOYEXIANGSEPU-ZHIPUFA(HPLCMS)〕。

XIANCHANGCEDINGFANGFAZHONG,ZHENDUIWUJIWURANWUHEYOUJIWURANWU,CEDINGFANGFAFENBIEYOUBIANXIESHIX SHEXIANYINGGUANGGUANGPUFAHEBIANXIESHIQIXIANGSEPU-ZHIPUFADENG。

广东11选52 ZHONGGUOTURANGHUANJINGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFAXIANZHUANG

TURANGHUANJINGWURANJIANCEZHONGCHANGYONGDEBIAOZHUNFANGFASHIGUOJIABIAOZHUNHEHUANBAOXINGYEBIAOZHUN。QIJINWEIZHI,ZHONGGUOYOU51GESHEJITURANGJIANCEDEGUOJIAHEHUANBAOXINGYEBIAOZHUNFANGFA,QIZHONGWUJIWUHEYOUJIWUJIANCEFANGFAFENBIEWEI23GE(BIAO1)HE17GE(BIAO2),3GEFANGSHEXINGJIANCEFANGFA(BIAO3),8GETURANGLIHUAXINGZHIJIQITAJIANCEFANGFA(BIAO4)。

广东11选523GEWUJIWUJIANCEFANGFAHANGAILE55ZHONGWUJIZUFEN,BAOKUO33GEYUANSUZONGLIANG(As、Cd、Co、MnDENG),7ZHONGYANGHUAWU(SiO

2

、Al

2

O

3

等),7种盐类(氰化物、硫酸盐等)以及9种元素有效态(Cu、Fe 等)。涉及的前处理方法有3种:酸消解、碱熔和浸提(提取液有二乙烯三胺五乙酸、碳酸氢钠、氯化钾、氯化钡等溶液)。酸消解方法最为常用,又分为2种体系(常压和高压),消解液有盐酸-硝酸-氢氟酸-高氯酸、盐酸-硝酸(王水)等。测定方法主要有8种:ICP-MS、波长色散X 射线荧光光谱法、火焰原子吸收分光光度法、石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法、原子荧光法、分光光度法、离子选择电极法和重量法等。

17GEYOUJIWUJIANCEFANGFASHEJI161GEZUFENDECEDING,QIZHONGJUEDADUOSHUSHIJIYANGPINQIANCHULIHEFENXIYITIDEFANGFA,YEYOUDULIDEYANGPINQIANCHULIFANGFA,RU《TURANGHECHENJIWUYOUJIWUDETIQUJIAYALIUTICUIQUFA》(HJ 783—2016)。YANGPINQIANCHULIFANGFAYOU6ZHONG:DINGKONG、CHUISAOBUJI、SUOSHITIQU、JIAYALIUTICUIQU、WEIBOCUIQUHECHAOSHENGBOTIQUDENG。FENXIFANGFAYOU5ZHONG:GC、GC-MS、HPLC、GAOFENBIANGC-GAOFENBIANMSYIJIGAOFENBIANGC-DIFENBIANMSDENG。161GECEDINGZUFENZHONG,BAOKUO16ZHONGDUOHUANFANGTING,18ZHONGDUOLVLIANBENDANTI,67ZHONGHUIFAXINGYOUJIWU,17ZHONGEREYINGLEI,10ZHONGYOUJILIN,8ZHONGYOUJILV,21ZHONGFENLEIYIJIBINGXIQUAN、BINGXIJING、YIJINGHEDUSHUQIANG。

3GEFANGSHEXINGJIANCEFANGFAZHONG,SHEJIBUHEYOU2GEYUANSU,CEDINGFANGFAYOUFANGSHEHUAXUEFENXIFA、GUTIYINGGUANGFAHEFENGUANGGUANGDUFADENG。

8GELIHUAZHIBIAODENGFANGFAZHONG,SHEJI5GECEDINGZHIBIAO(DIANDAOLV、YANGHUAHAIYUANDIANWEI、YOUJITAN、KEJIAOHUANSUANDU、GANWUZHIHESHUIFENDENG),YIJI5ZHONGCEDINGFANGFA(DIANJIFA、DIDINGFA、ZHONGLIANGFA、FENGUANGGUANGDUFAHEFEIFENSANHONGWAIFADENG)。LINGWAI,NONGYE、LINYEYEYOUTURANGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFA,ZHUYAOCEZHONGYUTURANGYINGYANGYUANSUJIQIYOUXIAOTAI、LIHUAZHIBIAODEJIANCE,XIANGJIANBIAO5HEBIAO6。NONGYEXINGYEBIAOZHUNFANGFAZHONG,YOU21GESHEJIWUJIYUANSUJIQIYOUXIAOTAICEDINGDEFANGFA,YOU15GESHEJITURANGLIHUAZHIBIAODEFANGFA;LINYEXINGYEBIAOZHUNFANGFAZHENDUIDESHISENLINTURANG,YOU15GESHEJIWUJIYUANSUJIQIYOUXIAOTAICEDINGDEFANGFA,YOU13GESHEJITURANGLIHUAZHIBIAODEFANGFA。

广东11选53 ZHONGGUOTURANGHUANJINGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFACUNZAIDEWENTI

3.1 现行标准中监测污染物的数量不足

XIANXINGBIAOZHUNFANGFAZHONG,WEIFUGAIMUQIANZHONGGUOSHENGCHAN、SHIYONG、PAIFANGDEDALIANGHUAXUEPINJITEZHENGWURANWU。

广东11选5YIFANGMIAN,TEZHENGWURANWUMINGQUE、DANWUBIAOZHUNFANGFAJIANCE。RUZHENGZAIXIUDINGDE《JIANSHEYONGDITURANGWURANFENGXIANSHAIXUANZHIDAOZHI》ZHONG,SUIRANGUIDINGLETAISUANZHILEI、SHIYOUTINGLEI、DUSHAFEN、MIEYILINGDENGWURANWUDEFENGXIANZHIDAOZHI,DANMUQIANSHANGQUEBIAOZHUNFANGFA,JIGAI“ZHIDAOZHI”DESHIJIZHIXINGZAOCHENGJISHUPINGJING。

LINGYIFANGMIAN,RUHEQUEDINGQIYEYONGDIDETEZHENGJIANCEYINZINANDUGENGDA。QIYEYONGDILEIXINGDUOYANG,RENLEIHUODONGQIANGDUDA,SHEJIGEZHONGHUAXUEPINHESHENGCHANJIAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEWURANWU,ZHONGLEIFANDUO,WURANYUANLEIXINGFUZA。ZAI《JIANSHEYONGDITURANGWURANFENGXIANSHAIXUANZHIDAOZHI(SANCIZHENGQIUYIJIANGAO)》ZHONG,JIEHEXINGYESHENGCHANTEZHENG、WURANWULIHUAHEDUXINGXINGZHI,JIANGWURANWUXIANGMUFENWEI9LEI:JINSHUYUWUJIWU、ZHIFANGTINGJIQIYANSHENGWU、DANHUANFANGTINGJIQIYANSHENGWU、DUOHUANFANGTING、DUOLVLIANBENYUERKOUEYING、YOUJINONGYAO、SHIYOUTINGHELINBENERJIASUANZHI,GONGBAOKUO121XIANGTURANGWURANYINZI。DANSHIJIWURANCHANGDIZHONG,WURANYINZIBUXIANYUZHEI121XIANG。RUHEHELISHAIXUANBINGKEXUEJIANCETEZHENGWURANWU,CONGERJINYIBUYOUXIAOGUANKONGQIHUANJING、JIANKANGFENGXIAN,SHIMUQIANMIANLINDEYIGENANTI。

3.2 一些标准方法长期没有修订,新技术、方法难有法定地位

广东11选5ZHENGZAIXIUDINGDE《NONGYONGDIHUANJINGTURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGBIAOZHUN》ZHONG,CEDINGTURANGZHONGLIULIULIUHEDIDITIDEFANGFA(GB  /T14550—2003),HAIGUIDINGKEYIYONGTIANCHONGZHUFENLIFANGFA,ERMUQIANJIHUHENSHAOYOUJIANCEDANWEIZIXINGTIANCHONGSEPUZHU,PUBIANSHIGOUMAISHANGPINHUAMAOXIGUANZHUJINXINGFENLICEDING。YOURU,YUANZIXISHOUFENGUANGGUANGDUFASHICEDINGZHONGJINSHUSUOYONGDEPUBIANFANGFA,DANYIGAIFANGFAWEIJICHUDEBIAOZHUNFANGFA-TONG/XIN、NIE、QIAN/GEDECEDINGFANGFASHI1997NIANBANBUDE,QIEFENSANZAIGB/T 17138、GB/T 17139HEGB/T 17141DENG3GEBIAOZHUNZHONG,YIWEIZHEYAOFENXI1GEYANGPINZHONGDEZHEI5ZHONGYUANSUSHI,ZHISHAOYAOSHIYONG3ZHONGBUTONGDEBIAOZHUNFANGFA,RENLICHENGBENJIAOGAO,SHIXIAOXINGYEBUHAO。

3.3 土壤环境监测基础性研究较少,对标准方法的完整性、系统性、科学性技术支持不足

3.3.1 土壤粒径规定不统一

WUJIYANGPINCEDINGSHIYAOQIUDELIJINGBUTONGYI(2.0、0.85、0.15、0.075mmDENG),SHIDEYANGPINYANMOHUANJIESHIXIAOXING、KEBIXINGJIAOCHA;YOUJIYANGPINCEDINGSHISHIFOUYANMO、YANMODECHIDUYAOQIUBUYI,SHIJICAOZUOSHIWUSUOSHICONG。

TURANGLIJINGSHIYINGXIANGTURANGGUANGPUDEZHONGYAOYINSUZHIYI,SUIZHETURANGLIJINGDEJIANXIAO,TURANGGUANGPUFANSHELVCHENGXIANBUTONGFUDUDESHENGGAO,XIAOYU0.154mmDETURANGLIJINGDUITURANGGUANGPUFANSHELVDEYINGXIANGZUIDA。《TURANGHUANJINGJIANCEJISHUGUIFAN》(HJ/T 166—2004)DE“CHANGGUIJIANCEZHIYANGGUOCHENGTU”ZHONGGUIDING,TURANGYANGPINZIRANFENGGAN、YONGSIFENFAQUYASUIYANG、CUMOHOU,GUOKONGJING2mmNILONGSHAIHOUKEJINXINGYANGPINRUKUCUNDANG,DANZAIQIZHONG8.3.2XIAOJIE,YOUGUIDINGGUOKONGJING0.25mmNILONGSHAIHOU,YONGYUYANGPINKUCUNFANGYIJITURANGpH、YANGLIZIJIAOHUANLIANG、YUANSUYOUXIAOTAIHANLIANGDENGXIANGMUDEFENXI,QIANHOUGUIDINGYOUMAODUN。CEDINGTURANGpHSHI,YOUYAOQIUYANMOCHENGLIJINGWEI0.25mmDE,YEYOUYAOQIUMOCHENG2mmDE,SUODEDESHUJUKEBIXINGRUHE,HAIYOUDAISHANGQUE。

广东11选5《TURANGHUANJINGJIANCEJISHUGUIFAN》(HJ/T 166—2004)HAIGUIDING,TURANGYUANSUQUANLIANGFENXISHIYONGYANMODAOQUANBUGUOKONGJING0.15mmSHAIDEYANGPIN,ZHEIGEGUIDINGYOUXIEPIANMIAN,RUXSHEXIANYINGGUANGGUANGPUFACEDINGJIUXUYAOJIANGTURANGYANGPINYANMOHOUGUO0.075mmSHAI。GAIGUIFANZHONG,YAOQIUYONGYUNONGYAOCEDINGDEYANGPIN,YAOYANMODAOQUANBUGUOKONGJING0.25mmSHAI,ERZAOQIDEYOUJILVCEDING,DEQUESHIJIANGYANGPINYANMOCHENGLIJINGWEI0.25mmDE,DANTONGCHANGTURANGYOUJIWU(TEBIESHIYIHUIFA、YIFENJIEDENGYOUJIWU)FENXISHIYONGXINXIANYANGPIN,CHANBANWUSHUILIUSUANNAHUOLIZHUANGGUIZAOTUYANMOCHENG“XILIZHUANG”HUO“LIUSHAZHUANG”,YOUDEFENXIFANGFABUYAOQIUGUOSHAI,YOUDEYAOQIUGUO1mmDEJINSHUSHAI。

3.3.2 酸消解体系不统一

YUANSUHUNSUAN(WANGSHUI-GAOLVSUAN-QINGFUSUAN)QUANRONG、WANGSHUI(BUFENQUANRONG)、XIAOSUAN-GUOYANGHUAQINGFADENGQIANCHULISUOYONGSHIJITIXIBUTONG,JIEGUOYEBUTONG,XIANGYINGDEJIEGUOPINGJIATIXIBINGWEIYIYIJIANLI,SHIDEYOUXIECEDINGJIEGUOBUKEBI、YEWUFAPINGPAN。

广东11选5YANSUAN-XIAOSUAN-GAOLVSUAN-QINGFUSUANDEHUNSUAN“QUANSUAN”TIXIDUIYANGPINJINXINGXIAOJIE,HUODEDESHIYUANSUDEQUANLIANG,JIJIANGTURANGJINGGEZHONGDEYUANSUYEYIBINGTIQUCHULAI;ERQITAYIXIESUANJINZIFA(RUYANSUAN-XIAOSUANRONGJINFA、XIAOSUAN-LIUSUAN-GAOLVSUANRONGJINFAYIJIXIAOSUANRONGJINFADENG),DUITURANGZHONGBUFENYUANSUZESHIBUWANQUANDEXIAOJIETIQU,CEDEDEYUANSUHANLIANGJIEGUOBI“QUANSUAN”TIXIDECEDINGJIEGUOYAODI。SHIYONGBUTONGDEQIANCHULIFANGFADEDAODEFENXIJIEGUO,YONGTONGYIGEPINGJIABIAOZHUNRU《TURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGBIAOZHUN》(GB 15618—1995)JINXINGPINGJIA,BUJINSHUJUBUKEBI,JIELUNYEBUKEXUE。

3.3.3 元素形态分析、有效态分析,在不同的场合概念不明确

广东11选5ZAIPINGGUHUANJINGXIAOYINGSHI,WANGWANGBUYONGTURANGZHONGYUANSUZONGLIANGSHUZHI,YINWEIYUANSUDEQIANYIXING、SHENGTAIYOUXIAOXING、ZAISHENGWUTIZHONGDEJILEINENGLI(YOUCHENGSHENGWUKEJIXING),YUGAIYUANSUZAIHUANJINGZHONGCUNZAIDEWULIXINGTAIJIHUAXUEXINGTAIMIQIEXIANGGUAN。SHENGWUKEJIXINGZHIHUAXUEWUZHIBEIXISHOUDENENGLIHEKENENGDEDUXING,SHIYANJIUBUTONGDEXINGTAIBEISHENGWUXISHOUHUOZAISHENGWUTINEIJILEIDEGUOCHENG。

YUANSUZAIHUANJINGZHONGDEWULIXINGTAIYUHUAXUEXINGTAIFENXIJIWEI“XINGTAIFENXI”,MUQIANGUANGFANYINGYONGDEXINGTAIFENXIFANGFASHIYOUTESSIERDENGTICHUDETURANGYANGPINZHONGJINSHUYUANSUSHUNXUTIQUFA,GAIFANGFALIYONGHUAXUEXINGZHIBUTONGDETIQUJIXUANZETIQUYANGPINZHONGBUTONGXIANGTAIDEJINSHUYUANSU,XIANHOUFENBIETIQU5TAI:KEJIAOHUANTAI、TANSUANYANJIEHETAI、TIEMENGSHUIHEYANGHUAWUJIEHETAI、YOUJIWUHELIUHUAWUJIEHETAIHECANZHATAI,YOUXUEZHEJIANGZHEIZHONGFANGFAGUIWEIWULIXINGTAIFENXI。HUAXUEXINGTAIFENXIYOUKEYIFENWEISHAIXUANXINGTAI、FENZUXINGTAI、FENPEIXINGTAIYIJIGETIXINGTAIDENGFENXI。

HUANJINGZHONGDETURANGYUANSUYOUXIAOTAIYUSHENGWUKEJIXINGGAINIANMIQIEXIANGGUAN,TAYUZUOWUXISHOUXIAOLVYOUGUAN,ZHIZAIZHIWUSHENGZHANGQINEINENGGOUBEIZHIWUGENXIXISHOUDEYUANSU,QITURANGZHONGDEHANLIANGYUZUOWUDEXISHOUYOUJIAOGAODEXIANGGUANXING。DUOSHUCEDINGZHONGYOUXIAOTAIDETIQUYESHIERYIXISANANWUYISUAN-LVHUAGAI-SANYICHUNAN(DTPA-CaCl

2

-TEA)缓冲溶液,可浸提出土壤中的铜、铁、锰、锌、镉、钴、镍、铅等元素。也有用0.1mol/L HCl或水浸提土壤中有效硼的,还有用1mol/L乙酸铵-对苯二酚溶液浸提有效态锰,用草酸-草酸铵溶液浸提有效态钼,用pH为4.0的乙酸-乙酸钠缓冲溶液、0.02mol/L H

2

SO

4

、0.025%或1%的柠檬酸溶液浸提硅。酸性土壤中有效硫用H

3

PO

4

-HAc溶液浸提,中性或石灰性土壤中有效硫用0.5mol/L NaHCO

3

溶液浸提。土壤中有效钙、镁、钾、钠用1mol/L NH

4

Ac浸提,土壤中有效态磷用0.03mol/L NH

4

F-0.025mol/L HCl或0.5mol/L NaHCO

3

浸提。由于各元素有效态的浸提方法不同,至今针对污染元素有效态的限值标准还很难形成。

广东11选5ZAIYIXIEYINGYONGCHANGHEXIA,YUANSU“XINGTAIFENXI”“YOUXIAOTAIFENXI”GAINIANBINGBUHENQINGXI,FENXIFANGFAYOUCHAYI,HUIZAOCHENGBUTONGFENXIFANGFASUOHUODEDEJIANCEJIEGUOKEBIXINGCHA,CONGERYINQIJIANCEXINXIFABUSHIDEHUNLUAN,YENANYICHENGWEIWURANTURANGDEJIANKANGFENGXIANPANDUANHEPINGGUDENGGONGZUODEKEXUEJISHUZHICHENG。

3.4 在方法的标准化、系统化方面尚有许多工作待开展

3.4.1 缺少原位监测方法标准

ZHIJIN,WEISHUBUDUODETURANGYUANWEI(XIANCHANG)JIANCEFANGFA,ZHISHIYONGYUWURANWUDECHUBU、KUAISUSHAICHA,YIDINGXING、BANDINGLIANGWEIZHU,JIANCEFANWEIYOUXIAN,LINGMINDUYEBUGAO,MEIYOUXINGCHENGFANGFABIAOZHUN,SUODECEDINGJIEGUOBUNENGZUOWEIKEXUEJUECEJIHUANJINGGUANLIDEZHUYAOYIJU。

3.4.2 样品前处理方法单独成为标准还是融入分析方法中,缺乏顶层设计

MEIGUOEPADEFANGFATIXISHIYANGPINQIANCHULIFANGFAYUFENXIFANGFAXIANGDUIDULI,SHIYONGSHIKEYIZIYOUZUHE,DANSHIYANSHIYAOYOUZIJIDEBIAOZHUNCAOZUOCHENGXU(SOP),MINGQUEZIJISUOYONGDEQIANCHULI、FENXIFANGFA。RUEPA3000XILIEDEFANGFAWEIGUTIYANGPINYOUJIWUDEQIANCHULIFANGFA,QIZHONGEPA3540CFANGFAWEISUOSHITIQU、EPA3545AFANGFAWEIJIAYALIUTICUIQU、EPA3546AFANGFAWEIWEIBOCUIQU、EPA3550CFANGFAWEICHAOSHENGBOCUIQUDENG。EREPA8000XILIEWEIQIANCHULIHOUDEYOUJIYANGPINFENXIFANGFA,RUEPA8260SHIGC-MSFACEDINGHUIFAXINGYOUJIWU;EPA8270DSHIGC-MSFACEDINGBANHUIFAXINGYOUJIWU;EPA8290ASHIGAOFENBIANGC-GAOFENBIANMSCEDINGEREYING;EPA8318ASHIYONGHPLC FACEDINGANJIJIASUANZHILEIDENG。ZHONGGUODEFANGFATIXIZHONG,WANGWANGQIANCHULIHEFENXISHI“KUNBANG”ZAIYIGEFANGFAZHONGDE,RU《TURANGHECHENJIWUDUOLVLIANBENDECEDINGQIXIANGSEPU-ZHIPUFA》(HJ 743—2015)ZHONG,GUIDINGLEWEIBOCUIQU、CHAOSHENGBOCUIQU、SUOSHITIQU、JIAYALIUTIFANGFATIQUPCBs,BINGJICHULEJUTIDETIQUTIAOJIAN。DANJINQIYOUYOUDULIDEQIANCHULIFANGFABIAOZHUNBANBU,RU《TURANGHECHENJIWUYOUJIWUDETIQUJIAYALIUTICUIQUFA》(HJ 783—2016),GUIDINGGAIFANGFASHIYONGYUTURANGZHONGYOUJILINNONGYAO、YOUJILVNONGYAO、LVDAICHUCAOJI、DUOHUANFANGTING、LINBENERJIASUANZHI、DUOLVLIANBENDENGWUZHIDETIQU。ZHEIYANGYILAI,YUANYOUFANGFATIXIZHONG“QIANCHULI+FENXIFANGFA”DEMOSHIJIUBEIDAPOLE。“QIANCHULI+FENXIFANGFA”DEMOSHIZHIXINGJIANDAN,GUIFANXINGQIANG,DANRUOYOUXINDEQIANCHULIFANGFAFAZHANCHULAI,YOUYUZHONGXINKAOSHANGGANGZHENG、JIANGXINFANGFANARUZHILIANGGUANLITIXIDENGGONGZUOXUYAOYIDUANSHIJIAN,BUNENGJISHIJIANGXINFANGFAZHIJIEYONGYUSHIJIAN;DANCHUNDEQIANCHULIBIAOZHUNFANGFAZAIJUTISHIJIANZHONGBIJIAOLINGHUO,DANCUNZAIYUYUANYOU“QIANCHULI+FENXIFANGFA”DEGUIDINGKENENGBUYIZHIDEWENTI,QIEKENENGHUIYOUMOUXIESHIYANSHIBUZHIDINGGUIFANDEZUOYEZHIDAOSHU,XUANYONGQIANCHULIFANGFABIJIAOSUIYI,ZUIZHONGDAOZHISHUJUBUKEBI。

JINHOUSHIFOUYANYONGYUANYOUDETIXI,HAISHIQIANCHULIFANGFAXIANGDUIDULI,XUYAOCONGDINGCENGSHEJISHANGTONGPANKAOLV。

3.4.3 质量保证与质量控制有待完善

广东11选5YIQIANDEBIAOZHUNFANGFAZHONG,ZHILIANGBAOZHENGYUZHILIANGKONGZHIDENEIRONGJIAOSHAO;JINNIANLAIBANBUDEBIAOZHUNFANGFAZHONG,CONGXINFANGFAZHIDINGDEJIAODU,GUIDINGLE“JINGMIDU”HE“ZHUNQUEDU”DENGZHIKONGZHIBIAO,YOUDUOJIASHIYANSHIDUIWURANWUFENBIEJINXINGDUOCIZHONGFUCEDINGERHUODE。ZAIRICHANGYANGPINFENXISHI,TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIAFENXIRENYUANWUXUDUITONGYIYANGPINJINXING3CIYISHANGDEZHONGFUCEDING,YEBUTAIKENENGJIUYIGEYANGPIN,QUXUNZHAOQITASHIYANSHILAIBIDUICEDING。YINCI,“JINGMIDU”HE“ZHUNQUEDU”ZHEI2GEZHIKONGZHIBIAOZAIRICHANGFENXIGONGZUOZHONGZHIDAOYIYIBINGBUDA,XUYAOYANJIUZHIDINGRICHANGGONGZUOZHONGSHIYONG、YOUXIAODEZHIKONGZHIBIAOJIQIPINGJIABIAOZHUN,YOUQISHIBUTONGTURANGJIZHIXIAYANGPINDEHUISHOULV、PINGXINGYANGDECEDINGPIANCHADENGLIANGHUAPINGJIAZHIBIAO。

3.4.4 方法的先进性、普适性较难兼顾

BIAOZHUNFANGFADECHUTAI,YUANZESHANGXUYAO1JIAFANGFAYANZHIDANWEIHELINGWAIZHISHAO6JIAYANZHENGDANWEI,HUIDAOZHIYIXIEXUYAOYONGXINXING、JIAGEJIAOWEIANGGUIDEYIQI(RUGAOFENBIANGCMS、HPLC-MS-MSDENG)JINXINGCEDINGDEWURANWU(RUDUSHAFEN、DUOXIULIANBENMIDENG),QIBIAOZHUNFANGFABUNENGJISHIZHIDING、BANBU;ERMEIYOUBIAOZHUNFENXIFANGFA,YOUDAOZHIYIXIEXINXINGYIQITUIGUANGSHIYONGSHOUXIAN,ZHIYUELEXINJISHUDEFAZHAN。

YOURUX-YINGGUANGFENXIFA,DIZHIBUMENYIJIANGQIZUOWEIBIAOZHUNFANGFASHIYONGDUONIAN,SHIJIGONGZUOZHONGJIEJUELEPILIANGYANGPINDEKUAISU、ZHUNQUEJIANCE,DANYOUYUHUANBAOBUMENSHIYONGJIAOSHAO、PEIZHIYIQISHEBEIDEDANWEIJIAOSHAO,DUIGAIFANGFAXINGNENGLEJIEBUQUANMIAN、YINGYONGJINGYANBUZU,JISHIYOUBIAOZHUNFANGFABANBU,ZAIMOUXIEZHUANXIANGGONGZUOZHONGHAISHIBUTUIJIANSHIYONG。

4 ZHONGGUOTURANGHUANJINGJIANCEFANGFAFAZHANJIANYI

4.1 加强土壤监测标准方法的顶层设计,合理增加土壤污染物的控制种类

JIANYIJIEHEHUANJINGBIAOZHUNHEWURANKONGZHIBIAOZHUNDELUXUGENGXINGONGZUO,JIANGBIAOZHUNFANGFATIXIGUIFANHUA、XITONGHUADEGUIHUAHEFAZHANZUOWEITURANGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFADINGCENGSHEJIDEZHONGDIAN,LIRU,HELILIQINGBIAOZHUNFANGFAYUJISHUGUIFANDEGUANXI;SHENZHONGKAOLVJINHOUSHIJIANGYANGPINQIANCHULIFANGFADANDUSHEWEIYIZHONGXILIEBIAOZHUN,YUXIANYOUDESHIYANSHIFENXIBIAOZHUNXILIEBINGXING,HAISHIRONGRUFENXIFANGFAZHONG,CHENGWEI“YITIHUA”DEBIAOZHUN;JIJIXUFAHUIJINGDIANBIAOZHUNFANGFADEZUOYONG、BAOCHILISHIJIANCESHUJUDELIANXUXING,YOUJIANGUHEXINAXIANJIN、GAOXIAOYIJIJIANYI、KUAISUDEJIANCEFANGFAZUOWEIBIAOZHUNFENXIFANGFA。

广东11选5《GUOJIAHUANJINGBAOHUBIAOZHUN“SHISANWU”FAZHANGUIHUA(ZHENGQIUYIJIANGAO)》ZHONG,NIXINZENG14GEWUJIWUDEBIAOZHUNCEDINGFANGFA,QIZHONGXINZENGCEDINGZUFENYOULIUHUAWU、FUHUAWU、Tl、Sn、LIUJIAGEDENG;NIXINZENG26GEYOUJIWUDEBIAOZHUNCEDINGFANGFA,QIZHONGXINZENGCEDINGZUFENYOUCHIJIUXINGYOUJIWURANWU(PCBHUNHEWU、ZHISHIXINGDUSHAFEN、DUOXIULIANBEN、DUOXIULIANBENMI、QUANFUXINJIHUANGSUANHEQUANFUXINJISUOSUAN、LIUXIUHUANSHIERWANHESIXIUSHUANGFENA),NONGYAO(BENYANGSUOSUANLEINONGYAO、ATELAJINHEXIMAJIN、CAOGANLIN、DIBAI、DAISENMENGXIN、SHACHONGJI),TAISUANZHILEI,WANJIGONG,ZONGSHIYOUTING,HUIFAFEN,QUAN/TONG/MILEI,BENANLEIHELIANBENANLEIDENG;LINGWAI,HAINIXINZENGQITAZHIBIAO:YOUJIHUAXUEWUZHIXISHOUCHANGSHU、LIDU、YANGLIZIJIAOHUANRONGLIANGDENGBIAOZHUNFANGFA。SHUOMINGZHONGGUOTURANGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFA(YOUQISHIYOUJIWUDEBIAOZHUNFANGFA)KAIFAYIJINGSHOUDAOYIDINGDEZHONGSHI。JIANYIZAITURANGMUBIAOWURANWUDEXUANZESHANG,ZHENDUINONGTIANDIKUAI,KEYICANKAOYUTURANGYOUGUANXIDENONGZUOWU、SHIPINCANLIUBIAOZHUNSUOKONGZHIDEWURANWU(RUXIANGGUANSHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUN);ZHENDUIQIYEYONGDI,YAOZAIQIYELISHIDIAOCHAJICHUSHANG,SHAIXUANTEZHENGWURANYINZI,JIANGYUQIYESHENGCHANHUODONGXIANGGUAN、DUIRENTIJIANKANGHETURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGYINGXIANGJIAODA、YOUKENENGDUITURANG(DIXIASHUI)CHANSHENGGAOFENGXIANDEWURANWU,CHUDINGWEIMUBIAOWURANWU,TONGSHIYAOZONGHEKAOLVHUAHEWUTEXING(FANYINGJIANGJIE、TURANGXIFUXING、HUIFAXINGDENG),MUQIANDEFENXICESHIJISHUSHUIPINGYIJIGUONEIWAITURANGWURANFENGXIANPINGJIAQINGKUANGDENG,QUEDINGMUBIAOWURANWU,BINGCANZHAOGUOJIFANGFA、WENXIANZHONGXIANGDUICHENGSHUDEFANGFA,JIANLIMUBIAOWURANWUDEBIAOZHUNCESHIFANGFA。

4.2 及时更新标准方法,大力发展多组分同时测定的高效方法

YIWEIJIANCEZHUYAOBAOKUOHUAXUESHIYANFENXIFAHEYIQIFENXIFA,MUQIANJIHUHENSHAOSHIYONGHUAXUEFENXIFAYANJIUTURANGZHONGJINSHU、YOUJIWU,JINGDUGAO、CAOZUOJIANDAN、KETONGSHICEDUOGEXIANGMUDEYIQIFENXIFA(RUGC、HPLC、ICP-AES、XSHEXIANYINGGUANGGUANGPUFADENG),YIJIYIQILIANYONGFASHIZHULIUFAZHANQUSHI,CONGFENGUANGGUANGDUFA、YUANZIXISHOUFENGUANGGUANGDUFADAOICP、ICP-MS,CONGSEPUFADAOSEPU-ZHIPULIANYONG,SUONENGCEDEMUBIAOWUFANWEIGENGGUANG,JIANCEJINGDUCONGmg/kgDAOμg/kg,ZAIDAOng/kg,HENLIANGWURANWUDEJIANCHUXIANZHUJIANJIANGDI。《GUOJIAHUANJINGBAOHUBIAOZHUN“SHISANWU”FAZHANGUIHUA(ZHENGQIUYIJIANGAO)》ZHONG,XINZENGDEFENXIFANGFAYOUICP-AES、CUIHUAREJIE-YUANZIXISHOUFA、HPLC-MS、GC-YUANZIYINGGUANGFADENG,YEXINALEYIQILIANYONGDEJISHUSHOUDUAN。SHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUNZHONG,SHUIGUOHESHUCAI、LIANGGU、CHAYEZHONG,FENBIETONGSHICEDING500、475、448ZHONGNONGYAOCANLIU,ZHEIZHONGDUOCANLIUDECEDINGJISHUYEZHIDEHUANBAOLINGYUJIEJIAN。

4.3 科学研究标准方法,加强其系统性、协调性

JINHOUTURANGJIANCEBIAOZHUNFANGFAKAIFAKEJINJINWEIRAOTURANGZHILIANGBIAOZHUN、WURANCHANGDIXIUFUXIANZHI、NONGCHANPINBIAOZHUNDENGDEXUQIU,YEKEYIJIANGXIANGDUICHENGSHUDEWENXIANFANGFAJINXINGBIAOZHUNSHIYONGXINGZHUANHUA,XIANGDUISUODUANFANGFABIAOZHUNYANZHIDEZHOUQI;ZAIFANGFAGUIDINGDEXIJIEFANGMIANJINYIBUYUYISHULI(RUYUANSUSHAIFENDELIJINGXIANGDUITONGYI),BIANYUTIGAOCEDINGXIAOLV;ZAICEDINGFANGFAYUPINGJIABIAOZHUNDEPIPEIXINGFANGMIANYAOYUYIZHONGSHI,TURANGYUANSUZONGLIANG、XINGTAIHEYOUXIAOTAICEDINGFANGFAJUNGEYOUCEZHONG,YUANSUZONGLIANGFUHEGUOJIAXIANXINGDETURANGPINGJIABIAOZHUNTIXI,QIECEDINGTIXIXIANGDUITONGYI,JIEGUOKEBIXINGQIANG;YUANSUYOUXIAOTAINENGYOUXIAOPINGGUWURANWUKENENGDEQIANYI、TURANGWURANDUIDIXIASHUIDEYINGXIANG,GENGNENGFANYINGHUANJINGXIAOYING,ZHEIXIEJIANCEDEMUDEBUTONG,JUNXUYAOYANJIU,BUKEHOUCIBOBI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,YINGJIANGZONGLIANG、XINGTAI、YOUXIAOTAIDEPINGJIAFANGFAYUJIANCEFANGFAYIYIPIPEI,BUGUANSHIYUANSUXINGTAIFENXIHAISHIYOUXIAOTAIFENXI,XUYAOMONIZHIWUZAITURANGZHONGSHENGZHANGDESHIJIQINGKUANGYUDUOZHONGYINSUDUIXINGTAIJISHENGWUKEJIXINGDEZONGHEYINGXIANG,TONGGUODALIANGSHICESHUJU,TANSUOJUYOUPUSHIYIYIDESHENGWUKEJIXINGFANGFAXUE,BINGZUIZHONGXINGCHENGGUIFANHUADEFENXIFANGFATIXIJIKECAOZUODEKONGZHIBIAOZHUNTIXI。

4.4 鼓励原位监测方法的探索,使之尽可能准确、标准化

广东11选5YUANWEIJIANCEKESHIXIANKUAISU、FEIPOHUAI、DAMIANJIDIJIANCETURANGWURANWU,SHIYANZHOUQIDUAN,MUQIANYANJIUREDIANYOUBIANXIESHIX-YINGGUANGGUANGPU、GAOGUANGPUYAOGANTANCE、SHENGWUFAGUANGJISHU(ZHENDUIWUJIWU)、BIANXIESHIGC-MS(ZHENDUIYOUJIWU)DENG,DANJISHUDADUOCHUYUDINGXINGHUOBANDINGLIANGHUASHIYANJIEDUAN,YANJIUSILUKEJIEJIAN,DAMIANJITUIGUANGYINGYONGRENGXUYANZHENG。DUIQUYUTURANGJINXINGJIANCESHI,KEXIANYONGYUANWEIJIANCEJINXINGQIANQIMODIDIAOCHA,RANHOUYOUZHENDUIXINGDIZHONGDIANXUANZEYICHANGDIANHUOMIAN,YONGBIAOZHUNFANGFASHENRUJIANCE。YUANWEIJIANCEDEZONGTIQUSHISHIXIANGJINGDUGENGGAODEWEIGUANTANSUOJISHUHEJIEYUESHIJIANCHENGBENDEZHONGGUAN、HONGGUANJIANCEJISHUFAZHAN,BUJINKEYONGYAOGANJISHUDUITURANGZHONGJINSHUJINXINGSHIDIDINGWEIGUANCE,HAIKEYONGBUTONGSHIQIDEYINGXIANGDIEJIA,DUIBIGUANCETURANGZHILIANGBIANHUAQINGKUANG;TONGGUOJINHONGWAI、REHONGWAIJIESHOUDEYAOGANYINGXIANG、GUANGXUEZHENCEHEXIUZHENG(LIDAR)TANCE、JISUANDEDAOZUFENHANLIANG,SHIXIANTURANGWURANWUDEDINGXING、DINGLIANGJIANCE。

5 JIELUN

中国土壤监测标准方法包括国家标准、行业标准两大类,其中国家标准和环保行业标准侧重于土壤污染物的检测,农业和林业行业标准侧重土壤营养元素及其有效态、理化指标的检测。在现行标准方法中,监测污染物的数量不足,一些标准方法长期未修订导致新技术和新方法尚无法定地位,土壤环境监测的基础性研究较少,对标准的完整性、系统性、科学性技术支持不足,在方法的标准化、系统化方面尚有许多工作待开展。建议加强土壤监测标准方法的顶层设计,合理增加土壤污染物的控制种类;及时更新标准方法,发展多组分同时测定的高效方法;科学研究标准方法,加强其系统性、协调性;鼓励进行原位监测方法的探索,使之尽可能地准确、标准化。

◆来源 | 京津冀大气环境监测治理技术论坛

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