【检测】检测实验室最全基础知识汇总,适合实验新手学习、老手自查!

     

1、检验用水的要求 

广东11选5FENXIJIANYANZHONGJUEDADUOSHUDEFENXISHIDUISHUIRONGYEDEFENXIJIANCE,YINCISHUISHIZUICHANGYONGDERONGJI。ZAISHIYANSHIZHONGLIBUKAIZHENGLIUSHUIHUOTESHUYONGTUDECHUNSHUI,ZAIWEITESHUZHUMINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,WULUNPEIZHISHIJIYONGSHUI,HAISHIFENXIJIANYANCAOZUOGUOCHENGZHONGJIARUDESHUI,JUNWEICHUNDUNENGMANZUFENXIYAOQIUDEZHENGLIUSHUIHUOQULIZISHUI。ZHENGLIUSHUIKEYONGPUTONGDESHENGHUOYONGSHUIJINGZHENGLIUQIHUALENGNINGZHICHENG,YEKEYIYONGYINYANGLIZIJIAOHUANCHULIDEFANGFAZHIDE。TESHUXIANGMUDEJIANYANFENXIDUISHUIDECHUNDUYOUTESHUYAOQIUSHI,YIBANZAIJIANYANFANGFAZHONGZHUMINGSHUIDECHUNDUYAOQIUHETICHUNCHULIDEFANGFA。

WEIBAOZHENGCHUNSHUIDEZHILIANGNENGFUHEFENXIGONGZUODEYAOQIU,DUIYUSUOZHIBEIDEMEIYIPICHUNSHUI,DOUBIXUJINXINGZHILIANGJIANCE。YIBANYINGDADAOYIXIABIAOZHUN:

①YONGDIANDAOYICEDINGDEDIANDAOLVXIAOYUHUODENGYU530µs/cm(25℃)。

②SUANDUCHENGZHONGXINGHUORUOSUANXING,PH=5.0~7.5(25℃).KEYONGJINGMIpHSHIZHI、SUANDUJICEDING,YEKEYONGRUXIAZHISHIJIFACEDING:ZAI10 mlSHUIZHONGJIARU2~3DI1g/LJIAJIHONGZHISHIJI,YAOYUNCHENGHUANGSEBUDAIHONGSE,ZESHUOMINGSHUIDESUANDUHEGE,CHENGZHONGXING;HUOZAI10 mlSHUIZHONGJIARU4~5DI1g/LXIUBAILIFENLANZHISHIJI,YAOYUNBUCHENGLANSE,ZESHUOMINGSHUIDESUANDUHEGE,CHENGZHONGXING。

③WUYOUJIWUHEWEISHENGWUWURAN。JIANCEFANGFAWEI:ZAI100 mlSHUIZHONGJIARU2DI0.1g/LGAOMENGSUANJIARONGYEZHUFEIHOURENGWEIFENHONGSE。

④GAI、MEIDENGJINSHULIZIHANLIANGHEGE。JIANCEFANGFAWEI:ZAI10 mlSHUIYANGZHONGJIARU2 mlAN-LVHUAANHUANCHONGRONGYE(PH=10),2DI5g/LGEHEITZHISHIJI,YAOYUN。RONGYECHENGLANSEBIAOSHISHUIHEGE,RUCHENGZIHONGSEZEBIAOSHISHUIBUHEGE。

⑤QINGLIZIHANLIANGHEGE。JIANCEFANGFAWEI:ZAI10 mlSHUIYANGZHONGJIARUSHUDIXIAOSUAN,ZAIJIARU4DI10g/LDEAgNO3RONGYE,YAOYUN。RONGYEZHONGWUBAISEHUNZHUOWUBIAOSHISHUIHEGE,RUYOUBAISEHUNZHUOWUZEBIAOSHISHUIBUHEGE。

2、检验用试剂的要求

HUAXUESHIJISHIFUHEYIDINGZHILIANGYAOQIUBIAOZHUNDECHUNDUJIAOGAODEHUAXUEWUZHI,TASHIFENXIGONGZUODEWUZHIJICHU。SHIJIDECHUNDUDUIFENXIJIANYANHENZHONGYAO,TAHUIYINGXIANGDAOJIEGUODEZHUNQUEXING,SHIJIDECHUNDUDABUDAOFENXIJIANYANDEYAOQIUJIUBUNENGDEDAOZHUNQUEDEFENXIJIEGUO。NENGFOUZHENGQUEXUANZE、SHIYONGHUAXUESHIJI,JIANGZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOFENXISHIYANDECHENGBAI、ZHUNQUEDUDEGAODIJISHIYANDECHENGBEN,YINCI,YIQISHIYONGRENYUANBIXUCHONGFENLEJIEHUAXUESHIJIDEXINGZHI、LEIBIE、YONGTUYUSHIYONGFANGMIANDEZHISHI。

GENJUZHILIANGBIAOZHUNJIYONGTUDEBUTONG,HUAXUESHIJIKEDATIFENWEIBIAOZHUNSHIJI、PUTONGSHIJI、GAOCHUNDUSHIJIYUZHUANYONGSHIJISILEI。

①标准试剂

广东11选5BIAOZHUNSHIJISHIYONGYUHENGLIANGQITAWUZHIHUAXUELIANGDEBIAOZHUNWUZHI,TONGCHANGYOUDAXINGSHIJICHANGSHENGCHAN,BINGYANGEANZHAOGUOJIABIAOZHUNJINXINGJIANYAN,QITEDIANSHIZHUTICHENGFENHANLIANGGAOERQIEZHUNQUEKEKAO。

广东11选5DIDINGFENXIYONGBIAOZHUNSHIJI,WOGUOXIGUANCHENGWEIJIZHUNSHIJI(PT),FENWEICJI(DIYIJIZHUN)YUDJI(GONGZUOJIZHUN)LIANGGEJIBIE,ZHUTICHENGFENTIJIFENSHUFENBIEWEI99.98~100.02%HE99.95~100.05%,DJIJIZHUNSHIJISHIDIDINGFENXIZHONGDEBIAOZHUNWUZHI,JIZHUNSHIJIGUIDINGCAIYONGQIANLVSEBIAOQIAN。

②普通试剂

PUTONGSHIJISHISHIYANSHIGUANGFANSHIYONGDETONGYONGSHIJI,YIBANKEFENWEISANGEJIBIE,QIGUIGEHESHIYONGFANWEIJIANXIABIAO:

DENGJI

MINGCHENG

FUHAO

SHIYONGFANWEI

BIAOZHI

YIJI

YOUJICHUN

(BAOZHENGSHIJI)

GR

广东11选5JINGMIFENXI、KEYANYONG,YEKEZUOJIZHUNWUZHI

LVSE

ERJI

FENXICHUN

(FENXISHIJI)

AR

CHANGYONGFENXISHIJI、KEYANYONGSHIJI

HONGSE

SANJI

HUAXUECHUN

CR/CP

YAOQIUJIAODIDEFENXIYONGSHIJI

LANSE

普通试剂的规格和适用范围

③高纯试剂

GAOCHUNSHIJIZHUTICHENGFENHANLIANGTONGCHANGYUYOUJICHUNSHIJIXIANGDANG,DANZAZHIHANLIANGHENDI,ERQIEZAZHIJIANCEXIANGMUBIYOUJICHUNHUOJIZHUNSHIJIDUO1~2BEI。GAOCHUNSHIJIZHUYAOYONGYUWEILIANGFENXIZHONGSHIYANGDEFENJIEJIRONGYEDEZHIBEI。

④专用试剂

ZHUANYONGSHIJISHIYILEIJUYOUZHUANMENYONGTUDESHIJI。QIZHUTICHENGFENHANLIANGGAO,ZAZHIHANLIANGHENDI。TAYUGAOCHUNSHIJIDEQUBIESHI:ZAITEDINGDEYONGTUZHONGGANRAOZAZHICHENGFENZHIXUKONGZHIZAIBUZHICHANSHENGMINGXIANGANRAODEXIANDUYIXIA。ZHUANYONGSHIJIZHONGLEIHENDUO,RUGUANGPUCHUNSHIJI(SP)、SEPUCHUNSHIJI(GC)、SHENGWUSHIJI(BR)DENG。

GEZHONGSHIJIYAOGENJUJIANYANXIANGMUDEYAOQIUHEJIANYANFANGFADEGUIDING,HELI、ZHENGQUEDEXUANZESHIYONG,BUYAOMANGMUDEZHUIQIUCHUNDUGAO。LIRU:PEIZHIGESUANXIYESHI,JINXUGONGYEYONGDEK2CrO7HEGONGYEH2SO4JIKE,RUOYONGARJIDEK2CrO7,BIDINGZAOCHENGLANGFEI。SHIPINJIANYANSHIYONGFENXICHUNSHIJI(AR)。DUIYUDIDINGFENXICHANGYONGDEBIAOZHUNRONGYE,YINGCAIYONGFENXICHUNSHIJIPEIZHI,ZAIYONGDJIJIZHUNSHIJIBIAODING;DUIYUMEISHIJIYINGGENJUQICHUNDU、HUOLIHEBAOCUNDETIAOJIANJIYOUXIAOQIXIANZHENGQUEDIXUANZESHIYONG。

3、检验用一般器皿的要求

⑴、器皿的选用

FENXIJIANYANSHILIBUKAIGEZHONGQIMIN,SUOXUDEGEZHONGQIMINYINGGENJUJIANYANFANGFADEYAOQIULAIXUANYONG。YIBANYINGXUANYONGYINGZHIDEBOLIQIMIN;YOUXIESHIJIDUIBOLIYOUFUSHIXING(RUNaOHDENG),XUXUANJUYIXIPINGZHUCUN;YUGUANGBUWENDINGDESHIJI(RUAgNO3 /I2DENG)YINGXUANZEZONGSEBOLIPINGBIGUANGZHUCUN。XUANYONGSHIHAIYINGKAOLVDAORONGLIANGJIRONGLIANGJINGDUHEJIAREDEYAOQIUDENG。

JIANYANZHONGSUOSHIYONGDEGEZHONGQIMINBIXUJIEJING,FOUZEHUIZAOCHENGJIEGUOWUCHA,ZHEISHIWEILIANGHERONGLIANGFENXIZHONGJIWEIZHONGYAODEWENTI。

⑵、器皿的洗涤

CHANGYONGXIDIYEDEPEIZHI:

广东11选5①FEIZAOSHUI、XIYIFENSHUI、QUWUFENSHUI:GENJUXIDIDEQINGKUANGJUTIPEIZHI。

②WANGSHUI:3FENHCLYU1FENHNO3HUNHE

③HCLXIYE(1+3):1FENHCLYU3FENSHUIHUNHE。

广东11选5④GESUANXIYE:CHENGQU50gK2CrO7,JIA170~180mlSHUI,JIARERONGJIECHENGBAOHERONGYE,ZAIJIAOBANXIAXUXUJIARUNONGH2SO4ZHIYUE500ml。

广东11选5⑤JIANXINGJIUJINGXIYE:YONGTIJIFENSHUWEI95%DEYICHUNYUZHILIANGFENSHUWEI30%DENaOHRONGYEDENGTIJIHUNHE。

QIMINDEXIDIFANGFA:

广东11选5①XINDEBOLIQIMIN:XIANYONGZILAISHUICHONGXI,LIANGGANHOUYONGGESUANXIYEJINPAO,YICHUQUZHANFUDEQITAWUZHI,RANHOUYONGZILAISHUICHONGXIGANJING。

广东11选5②YOUYOUWUDEBOLIQIMIN:XIANYONGJIANXINGJIUJINGXIYEXIDI,RANHOUYONGXIYIFENSHUIHUOFEIZAOSHUIXIDI,ZAIYONGZILAISHUICHONGXIGANJING。

③YOUFANSHILINYOUWUDEQIMIN:XIANJIANGFANSHILINCAQU,ZAIZAIXIYIFENSHUIHUOFEIZAOSHUIZHONGSHAOZHU,QUCHUHOUYONGZILAISHUICHONGXIGANJING。

④YOUXIUJI、SHUIGOUDEQIMIN:YONG(1+3)HCLXIYEJINPAO,ZAIYONGZILAISHUICHONGXIGANJING。

⑤BISEMIN:XIANYONGZILAISHUICHONGXI,ZAIYONGXIHCLXIDI,RANHOUYONGZILAISHUICHONGXIGANJING。

⑥JUYIXISULIAOQIMIN:YONGXIHCLXIDIHOU,ZAIYONGZILAISHUICHONGXIGANJING。

WEILEBAOZHENGQIMINXIDIHOUNENGDADAOJIEJINGDEYAOQIU,YAOYONGZHENGLIUSHUICHONGXIDIAOFUZHEDEZILAISHUI,YIBANYONGZHENGLIUSHUILINXI2~3CI,ZHENGLIUSHUILINXISHIYINGSHAOLIANGDUOCI,YIDADAOJIEYUEZHENGLIUSHUIHEJIEJINGQIJUDEMUDE。

YIQI、SHEBEIDEYAOQIU:

广东11选5①BOLILIANGQIDEYAOQIU:JIANYANFANGFAZHONGSUOSHIYONGDEDIDINGGUAN、YIYEGUAN、RONGLIANGPING、KEDUXIGUAN、BISEGUANDENGBOLILIANGQIJUNXUANGUOJIAYOUGUANGUIDINGJIGUICHENGJINXINGXIAOZHUNHUOJIANDING。BOLILIANGQIHEBOLIQIMINXUJINGCHEDIXIJINGHOUCAINENGSHIYONG。

②KONGWENSHEBEIDEYAOQIU:JIANYANFANGFAZHONGSUOSHIYONGDEHENGWENGANZAOXIANG、HENGWENSHUIYUGUODENGJUNXUANGUOJIAYOUGUANGUICHENGJINXINGCESHIHEXIAOZHUNHUOJIANDING。

广东11选5③CELIANGYIQIDEYAOQIU:TIANPING、SUANDUJI、WENDUJI、FENGUANGGUANGDUJI、SEPUYIDENGJUNYINGANGUOJIAYOUGUANGUIDINGJIGUICHENGJINXINGXIAOZHUNHUOJIANDING。

广东11选5ZHU:JIANYANFANGFAZHONGSUOLIEYIQIWEIGAIFANGFASUOXUYAODEZHUYAOYIQI,YIBANSHIYANSHICHANGYONGYIQIBUZAILIERU。

4、检验的一般步骤

广东11选5SHIPINJIANYANDEJIBENBUZHOUWEI:YANGPINDECAIJI;YANGPINDECHULI;YANGPINDEFENXIJIANCE;FENXIJIEGUODEJILUYUCHULISIGEJIEDUAN。

⑴样品的采集

广东11选5YANGPINDECAIJIYOUCHENGCAIYANG、YANGPINDEZHIBEI,SHIZHICHOUQUYOUYIDINGDAIBIAOXINGDEYANGPIN,GONGFENXIHUAYANYONG。YANGPINDECAIJIYIBANBAOKUOSANGENEIRONG:JICHOUYANG、QUYANGHEZHIYANG。CAIYANGSHIBIXUZHUYIYANGPINDESHENGCHANRIQI、PIHAO、DAIBIAOXINGHEJUNYUNXING。CAIYANGSHULIANGYINGNENGMANZUJIANYANXIANGMUDUISHIYANGLIANGDEXUYAO,CAIYANGRONGQIGENJUJIANYANXIANGMU,XUANYONGYINGZHIBOLIPINGHUOJUYIXIZHIPIN。

CAIYANGYIBANBUZHOUWEI:①YUANSHIYANGDECAIJI;②YUANSHIYANGDEHUNHE;③SUOFENYUANSHIYANGZHIXUYAODELIANG。DUIYUBUTONGDEYANGPINYINGCAIYONGBUTONGDEFANGFAJINXINGYANGPINDECAIJI。

YETIYANGPINDECAIJI:DUIYUDAXINGTONGZHUANG、GUANZHUANGDEYANGPIN,KECAIYONGHONGXIFAFENBIEXIQUSHANG、ZHONG、XIACENGYANGPINGE0.5L,HUNYUNHOUQU0.5~1.0L。DUIYUDACHIZHUANGYANGPINKEZAICHIDESIJIAO、ZHONGXINGESHANG、ZHONG、XIASANCENGFENBIECAIYANG0.5L,CHONGFENHUNYUNHOUQU0.5~1.0L。

GUTIYANGPINDECAIJI:YINGCHONGFENJUNYUNGEBUWEIYANGPINDEYUANSHIYANG,YISHIYANGPINJUYOUJUNYUNXINGHEDAIBIAOXING。DUIYUDAKUAIDEYANGPIN,YINGQIEGECHENGXIAOKUAIHUOFENSUI、GUOSHAI、FENSUI,GUOSHAISHIBUNENGYOUWULIAODESUNSHIHEFEIJIAN,BINGQUANBUGUOSHAI,RANHOUJIANGYUANSHIYANGPINCHONGFENHUNYUNHOU,CAIYONGSIFENFAJINXINGSUOFEN,YIZHIZHIXUYAODEYANGPINLIANG,YIBANWEI0.5~1.0kg。

SIFENFADECAOZUOBUZHOUWEI:XIANJIANGYANGPINCHONGFENHUNHEHOUDUIJICHENGYUANZHUIXING,RANHOUCONGYUANZHUIDEDINGBUXIANGXIAYA,SHIYANGPINBEIYACHENG75pxYINEIDEHOUDU,RANHOUCONGYANGPINDINGBUZHONGXINAN“SHI”ZIXINGJUNYUNDIHUAFENCHENGSIBUFEN,QUDUIJIAODELIANGBUFENYANGPINHUNYUN,RUYANGPINDELIANGDADAOXUYAODELIANGJIKEZUOWEIFENXIYONGYANGPIN。RUYANGPINDELIANGRENGDAYUXUYAODELIANG,ZEJIXUANSHANGSHUFANGFAJINXINGSUOFEN,YIZHISUOFENDAOYANGPINXUYAOLIANG。

CAIYANGHOUYAOLIJIMISAI、TIESHANGBIAOQIAN,BINGRENZHENTIANXIECAIYANGJILU。CAIYANGJILUXUXIEMINGYANGPINDEMINGCHENG、CAIYANGDANWEI、DIZHI、RIQI、YANGPINPIHAOHUOBIANHAO、CAIYANGTIAOJIAN、BAOZHUANGQINGKUANG、CAIYANGSHULIANG、JIANYANXIANGMUJICAIYANGREN。YANGPINYINGANBUTONGDEJIANYANXIANGMUTUOSHANBAOZHUANG、BAOGUAN。

广东11选5YIBANYANGPINZAIJIANYANJIESHUHOU,YINGBAOLIUYIGEYUE,YIBEIXUYAOSHIFUJIAN。YIBIANZHISHIPINBUYUBAOLIU。BAOCUNSHIYINGJIAFENGBINGJINLIANGBAOCHIYUANZHUANG。WEIFANGZHIYANGPINZAIBAOCUNZHONGSHOUCHAO、FENGGAN、BIANZHI,BAOZHENGYANGPINDEWAIGUANHEHUAXUEZUCHENGBUFASHENGBIANHUA,YIBANXUYAOLENGZANG、BIGUANGBAOCUN。JIANYANQUYANGYIBANQUKESHIBUFEN,YISUOJIANYANDEYANGPINJISUAN。GANGUANPANDUANBUHEGEDEYANGPINBUBIJINXINGLIHUAJIANYAN,ZHIJIEPANWEIBUHEGECHANPIN。

WAIDIDIAORUDESHIPINYINGJIEHEYUNHUODAN、SHOUYIWEISHENGRENYUANZHENGMING、SHANGPINJIANYANJIGUANHUOWEISHENGBUMENDEWEISHENGXUKEZHENG、SHENGCHANXUKEZHENGJIJIANYANHEGEZHENGHUOHUAYANDAN,LEJIEQIYUNRIQI、LAIYUANDIDIAN、SHULIANG、PINZHIJIBAOZHUANGQINGKUANG,RUZAISHIPINGONGCHANG、CANGKUHUOSHANGDIANCAIYANGSHI,YINGLEJIESHIPINDEPIHAO、ZHIZAORIQI、CHANGFANGHUAYANJILUJIXIANCHANGWEISHENGZHUANGKUANG,TONGSHIYINGZHUYISHIPINDEYUNSHU、BAOGUANTIAOJIAN、WAIGUAN、BAOZHUANGRONGQIDENGQINGKUANG。

⑵样品的处理

YANGPINZHONGWANGWANGHANYOUYIDINGDEZAZHIHUOQITAGANRAOFENXIDECHENGFEN,YINGXIANGFENXIJIEGUODEZHENGQUEXING,SUOYIZAIFENXIJIANYANQIAN,YINGGENJUYANGPINDEXINGZHITEDIAN、FENXIFANGFADEYUANLIHETEDIAN,YIJIBEICEWUHEGANRAOWUDEXINGZHICHAYI,SHIYONGBUTONGDEFANGFA,BABEICEWUYUGANRAOWUFENLI,HUOSHIGANRAOWUFENLICHUQU,CONGERSHIFENXICEDINGDEDAOLIXIANGDEJIEGUO。

广东11选5YANGPINCHULIDECHANGYONGFANGFAYOU:

①RONGJICUIQUFA:QIYUANLISHILIYONGBEICEWUYUGANRAOWURONGJIEXINGDEBUTONGJIANGTAMENFENKAI。RUBANGQUMEIDUSUDECEDING,CHANGYONGYOUJIRONGJICHOUTIBANGQUMEIDUSU,RANHOUZAIYONGGAOXIAOYEXIANGSEPUFACEDING。CIFACAOZUOJIANDAN、FENLIXIAOGUOHAO,DANCUIQUJICHANGYIHUIFA、YIRAN、YIBAOQIEJUYOUDUXING,SUOYICAOZUOSHIYINGJIAYIZHUYI。

②YOUJIZHIFENJIEFA:QIYUANLISHILIYONGGAOWENCHULI,JIANGYANGPINZHONGDEYOUJIZHIYANGHUAFENJIE,QIZHONGC、H、OYUANSUYICO2HEH2OYICHU,BEICEDEJINSHUYUANSUDENGCHENGFENBEISHIFANGCHULAI,YILIJINYIBUCEDING。JUTIFANGFAYOUGANFAHUIHUAHESHIFAXIAOHUALIANGZHONG。

GANFAHUIHUASHIJIANGSHIYANGFANGZHIZAIGANGUOZHONG,XIANZAIDIWENXIAOHUOXIATANHUA,CHUQUSHUIFEN、HEIYANHOU,ZAIZAIGAOWENLUZHONGYI500~600℃DEGAOWENHUIHUAZHIWUHEISETANLI。RUGUOYANGPINBUYIHUIHUAWANQUAN,KEXIANYONGSHAOLIANGHNO3RUNSHISHIYANG,ZHENGGANHOUZAIJINXINGHUIHUA,BIYAOSHIYEKEJIANH4NO3、NaNO3DENGZHUHUIHUAJIYITONGHUIHUA,YICUJINHUIHUAWANQUAN,SUODUANHUIHUASHIJIAN,JIANSHAOYIHUIFAXINGJINSHU(RUHg)DESUNSHI。HUIHUAHOUDEHUIFENYINGWEIBAISEQIANHUIBAISE。ZHEIZHONGFANGFAYOUJIZHIPOHUAICHEDI,CAOZUOJIANBIAN,KONGBAIZHIXIAO,CHANGYONGYUYANGPINZHONGHUIFENDECEDING,DANCAOZUODESHIJIANJIAOZHANG。

SHIFAXIAOHUASHIZAIQIANGSUANXINGRONGYEZHONG,LIYONGH2SO4、HNO3、H2O2DENGYANGHUAJIDEYANGHUANENGLISHIYOUJIZHIFENJIE,BEICEDEJINSHUYILIZIZHUANGTAIZUIHOULIUZAIRONGYEZHONG,RONGYEJINGLENGQUEDINGRONGHOUGONGCEDINGSHIYONG。ZHEIZHONGFANGFAZAIRONGYEZHONGJINXING,JIAREDEWENDUJIAOGANFAHUIHUADEWENDUYAODI,FANYINGJIAOHUANHE,JINSHUHUIFASUNSHIJIAOSHAO,CHANGYONGYUYANGPINZHONGJINSHUYUANSUDECEDING。XIAOHUAGUOCHENGZHONGHUICHANSHENGDALIANGDEYOUHAIQITI,YINCIXIAOHUACAOZUOYINGZAITONGFENGCHUHUOTONGFENGTIAOJIANJIAOHAODEDIFANGJINXING。YOUYUCAOZUOGUOCHENGZHONGTIANJIALEDALIANGDESHIJI,RONGYIYINRUJIAODUODEZAZHI,SUOYIZAIXIAOHUADETONGSHI,YINGZUOKONGBAISHIYAN,YIXIAOCHUSHIJIDENGYINRUDEZAZHIDEWUCHA。

③ZHENGLIUFA:ZHENGLIUFASHILIYONGBEICEWUZHIZHONGGEZUFENHUIFAXINGDECHAYILAIJINXINGFENLIDEFANGFA。JIKEYICHUQUGANRAOZUFEN,YEKEYIYONGYUBEICEZUFENZHENGLIUYICHU,SHOUJILIUCHUYEJINXINGFENXI。RUCHANGLIANGKAISHIDINGDANFACEDANBAIZHIHANLIANG,JIUSHIJIANGDANBAIZHIXIAOHUACHULIHOU,ZHUANBIANWEIHUIFAXINGDAN,ZAIJINXINGZHENGLIU,YONGHBO3XISHOULIUCHUDEAN,RANHOUCECHUXISHOUYEZHONGANDEHANLIANG,ZAIHUANSUANCHENGDANBAIZHIDEHANLIANG。

ZHENGLIUSHIJIAREDEFANGFAKEYIGENJUBEIZHENGLIUWUZHIDEFEIDIANHETEXINGLAIQUEDING,BEIZHENGLIUDEWUZHIXINGZHIWENDING、BUYIBAOZHAHUORANSHAOSHI,KEYONGDIANLUZHIJIEJIARE。DUIFEIDIANXIAOYU90℃DEZHENGLIUWU,KEYONGSHUIYU;FEIDIANGAOYU90℃DEYETI,KEYONGYOUYU、SHAYU、YANYUFA。DUIYUYIXIEBEICECHENGFEN,CHANGYAJIAREZHENGLIURONGYIFENJIEDE,KECAIYONGJIANYAZHENGLIU,YIBANYONGZHENKONGBENGHUOSHUILIPENSHEBENGJINXINGJIANYA。

DUIMOUXIEJUYOUYIDINGZHENGQIYADEYOUJICHENGFEN,CHANGYONGSHUIZHENGQIZHENGLIUFAJINXINGFENLI。RUBAIJIUZHONGHUIFASUANDECEDING,ZAISHUIZHENGQIZHENGLIUSHI,HUIFASUANYUSHUIZHENGQIANFENYOUYACHENGZHENGBIDICONGYANGPINRONGYEZHONGYIQIZHENGLIUCHULAI,CONGERJIASULEHUIFASUANDEZHENGLIU。

④YANXIFA:LIYONGXIANGRONGYEZHONGJIARUMOUZHONGWUJIYAN,SHIRONGZHIZAIYUANRONGJIZHONGDERONGJIEDUDADAJIANGDI,ERCONGRONGYEZHONGCHENDIANXICHU,ZHEIZHONGFANGFAJIAOYANXI。RUZAIDANBAIZHIRONGYEZHONG,JIARUDALIANGDEYANLEI,TEBIESHIJIARUZHONGJINSHUYAN,SHIDANBAIZHICONGRONGYEZHONGCHENDIANCHULAI。ZAIJINXINGYANXICAOZUOSHI,YINGZHUYIRONGYEZHONGSUOYAOJIARUDEWUZHIDEXUANZEYINGSHIBUHUIPOHUAIRONGYEZHONGSUOYAOXICHUDEWUZHI,FOUZEDABUDAOYANXITIQUDEMUDE。

⑤HUAXUEFENLIFAZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIZHONGFANGFA:

a、HUANGHUAFAHEZAOHUAFA:CHANGYONGLAICHULIYOUZHIHUOHANZHIFANGDEYANGPIN。LIRU,NONGYAOCANLIUFENXIHEZHIRONGXINGWEISHENGSUCEDINGZHONG,YOUZHIBEINONGH2SO4HUANGHUAHUOBEIJIANZAOHUA,YOUZENGSHUIXINGBIANCHENGQINSHUIXING,SHIYOUZHIZHONGXUJIANCEDEFEIJIXINGWUZHINENGGOUJIAORONGYIDIBEIFEIJIXINGHUORUOJIXINGDERONGJITIQUCHULAI。

广东11选5b、CHENDIANFENLIFA:SHILIYONGCHENDIANFANYINGJINXINGFENLIDEFANGFA。ZAISHIYANGZHONGJIARUSHILIANGDECHENDIANJI,SHIBEICEWUZHICHENDIANCHULAI,HUOJIANGGANRAOCHENDIANCHUQU,CONGERDADAOFENLIDEMUDE。

c、YANBIFA:LIYONGYANBIJIYUYANGYEZHONGGANRAOCHENGFENZUOYONGSHIGANRAOCHENGFENZHUANBIANWEIBUGANRAOCHENGFEN,JIBEIYANBIQILAI。ZHEIZHONGFANGFAKEYIZAIBUJINGGUOFENLIGANRAOCHENGFENDECAOZUOTIAOJIANXIAXIAOCHUQIGANRAOZUOYONG,JIANHUAFENXIBUZHOU,YINERZAISHIPINFENXIZHONGYINGYONGGUANGFAN,CHANGYONGYUJINSHUYUANSUDECEDING。

⑥CHENGQINGHETUOSE:CHENGQINGSHIYONGLAIFENLIYANGPINZHONGDEHUNZHUOWUZHI,YIXIAOCHUQIDUIFENXICEDINGDEYINGXIANG。TONGCHANGCAIYONGCHENGQINGJI,SHIHUNZHUOWUZHIYUQIZUOYONGCHENDIAN,CONGERJIANGHUNZHUOWUZHICHUQU。CHENGQINGJIYINGBUHEBEICEZUFENHUOBUYINGXIANGBEICEZUFENDEFENXI。TUOSESHISHIYANGPINZHONGYIDUICEDINGJIEGUOCHANSHENGGANRAODEYOUSEWUZHIJINXINGQUCHU,YIXIAOCHUGANRAODEFANGFA。TONGCHANGKECAIYONGTUOSEJILAIJINXING。CHANGYONGDETUOSEJIYOU:HUOXINGTAN、BAITUDENG。

⑦SECENGFENLIFA(YOUCHENGWEISEPUFENLIFA):SHIYIZHONGZAIZAITISHANGJINXINGWUZHIFENLIDEFANGFADEZONGCHENG。GENJUFENLIDEYUANLIDEBUTONG,KEFENWEIXIFUSECENGFENLI、FENPEISECENGFENLIHELIZIJIAOHUANSECENGFENLIDENG。ZHEILEIFANGFAFENLIXIAOGUOHAO,ZAISHIPINFENXIZHONGDEYINGYONGZHUJIANGUANGFAN。

广东11选5⑧NONGSUO:SHIPINYANGPINJINGTIQU、JINGHUAHOU,YOUSHIJINGHUAHOUDERONGYETIJIJIAODA,ZAICEDINGQIANXUJINXINGNONGSUO,YITIGAOBEICECHENGFENDENONGDU。CHANGYONGDENONGSUOFANGFAYOUCHANGYAHEJIANYANONGSUOFALIANGZHONG。QIZHUYAOYUANLISHILIYONGZAITEDINGDETIAOJIANXIAWUZHIZHONGSHUIFENDEZHENGQIYADAYUKONGQIDEFENYA,SHISHUIFENCONGYANGPINZHONGYISAN,CONGERJIANGYANGPINNONGSUO。

⑶样品的分析检测

广东11选5YANGPINDEFENXIJIANCEFANGFAHENDUO,TONGYIJIANCEXIANGMUKEYICAIYONGBUTONGDEFANGFAJINXINGCEDING,XUANZEJIANCEFANGFASHI,YINGGENJUYANGPINDEXINGZHITEDIAN,BEICEZUFENDEHANLIANGDUOSHAO,YIJIGANRAOZUFENDEQINGKUANG,CAIQUZUISHIYIDEFENXIFANGFA,JIYAOJIANBIANYOUYAOZHUNQUEKUAISU。SHIPINJIANYANZHUYAOFENXIDEDUIXIANGSHIYANGPINZHONGYIMINGQUEDEDAIJIANCHENGFEN。GUOZHISHENGCHANZHONGDEFENXIFANGFAYIBANJIAOWEIGUDING。JUTIJIANCEFANGFAJIANGZAIHOUGEMIANJIESHAO。

⑷分析结果的记录与处理

FENXIJIEGUOYINGZHUNQUEJILU,BINGANGUIDINGDEFANGFAJINXINGCHULI,YONGZHENGQUEDEFANGSHIBIAOSHI,CAINENGQUEBAOFENXIJIEGUODEZUIZHONGZHENGQUEXING,JUTIFANGFAZAIHOUMIANXIANGXIJIESHAO。

DUIYUJIEGUODEBIAOSHU,PINGXINGYANGDECEDINGZHIBAOGAOQISUANSHUPINGJUNZHI,YIBANCEDINGZHIDEYOUXIAOSHUZIDESHUWEIYINGNENGMANZUWEISHENGBIAOZHUNDEYAOQIU,SHENZHIGAOYUWEISHENGBIAOZHUNDEYAOQIU,BAOGAOJIEGUOYINGBIWEISHENGBIAOZHUNDUOYIWEIYOUXIAOSHUZI,RUQIANDEHANLIANG,WEISHENGBIAOZHUNWEI1mg/kg;BAOGAOZHIYINGWEI1.0 mg/kg。

广东11选5YANGPINCEDINGZHIDEDANWEI,YINGYUWEISHENGBIAOZHUNYIZHI。CHANGYONGDEDANWEIYOU:g/kg,g/L,mg/kg,mg/L,µg/kg,µg/LDENG。

5、检验的有关要求

⑴检验方法的一般要求

广东11选5①CHENGQU:SHIZHIYONGTIANPINGJINXINGCHENGLIANGCAOZUO,QIJINGDUYAOQIUYONGSHUZHIDEYOUXIAOSHUWEIBIAOSHI,RU“CHENGQU20.0g……”ZHICHENGLIANGDEJINGDUWEI±0.1g;“CHENGQU20.00g……” ZHICHENGLIANGDEJINGDUWEI±0.01g。

②ZHUNQUECHENGQU:SHIZHIYONGJINGMITIANPINGJINXINGDECHENGLIANGCAOZUO,QIJINGDUWEI±0.0001g。

③HENGLIANG:SHIZHIZAIGUIDINGDETIAOJIANXIA,LIANXULIANGCIGANZAOHUOZHUOSHAOHOUCHENGDINGDEZHILIANGCHAYIBUCHAOGUOGUIDINGDEFANWEI。

④LIANGQU:SHIZHIYONGLIANGTONGHUOLIANGBEILIANGQUYETIWUZHIDECAOZUO,QIJINGDUYAOQIUYONGSHUZHIDEYOUXIAOSHUWEIBIAOSHI

⑤XIQU:SHIZHIYONGYIYEGUAN、KEDUXILIANGGUANQUYETIWUZHIDECAOZUO。QIJINGDUYAOQIUYONGSHUZHIDEYOUXIAOSHUWEIBIAOSHI

⑥KONGBAISHIYAN:SHIZHICHUBUJIAYANGPINWAI,CAIYONGWANQUANXIANGTONGDEFENXIBUZHOU、SHIJIHEYONGLIANG(DIDINGFAZHONGBIAOZHUNDIDINGYEDEYONGLIANGCHUWAI),JINXINGPINGXINGCAOZUOSUODEDEJIEGUO。YONGYUKOUCHUYANGPINZHONGSHIJIBENDIHEJISUANJIANYANFANGFADEJIANCHUXIAN。

⑵试剂的要求及其溶液浓度的基本表示方法

JIANYANFANGFAZHONGSUOSHIYONGDESHUI,WEIZHUMINGQITAYAOQIUSHI,JUNZHIZHENGLIUSHUIHUOQULIZISHUI。WEIZHIMINGRONGYEYONGHEZHONGRONGJIPEIZHISHI,JUNZHISHUIRONGYE。JIANYANFANGFAZHONGWEIZHIMINGJUTINONGDUDEH2SO4、HNO3、HCL、NH3·H2OSHI,JUNZHISHISHOUSHIJIGUIGEDENONGDU。YETIDEDISHIZHIZHENGLIUSHUIZIBIAOZHUNDIGUANLIUXIADEYIDIDELIANG,ZAI20℃SHI20DIXIANGDANGYU1.0mL

广东11选5RONGYENONGDUDEBIAOSHIFANGFAZHUYAOYOU:

①YIBIAOZHUNNONGDU(JIWUZHIDELIANGNONGDU)BIAOSHI:QIDINGYIWEIDANWEITIJIRONGYEZHONGSUOHANYOURONGZHIDEWUZHIDELIANG,DANWEIWEIMol/L

广东11选5②YIBILINONGDUBIAOSHI:JIYIJIZHONGGUTISHIJIDEHUNHEZHILIANGFENSHUHUOYETISHIJIDEHUNHETIJIFENSHUBIAOSHI,KEJIWEI(1+1)(4+2+1)DENGXINGSHI

广东11选5③YIZHILIANG(TIJI)FENSHUBIAOSHI:SHIYIRONGZHIZHANRONGYEDEZHILIANGFENSHUHUOTIJIFENSHUBIAOSHI,KEJIWEIwHUOф。

广东11选5④RUGUORONGYENONGDUYIZHILIANG、RONGLIANGDANWEIBIAOSHI,KEBIAOSHIWEIg/LHUOYIQISHIDANGFENBEISHUBIAOSHI(RUmg/mL)。

⑶配制溶液的要求

PEIZHIRONGYESHISUOSHIYONGDESHIJIHERONGJIDECHUNDUYINGFUHEFENXIXIANGMUDEYAOQIU。YIBANSHIJIYONGYINGZHIBOLIPINGCUNFANG,JIANYEHEJINSHURONGYEYONGJUYIXIPINGCUNFANG,XUBIGUANGSHIJIZHUYUZONGSEPINGZHONG。

⑷其他要求

JIANYANSHIBIXUZUOPINGXINGSHIYAN。JIANYANJIEGUODEBIAOSHIFANGFAYINGYUSHIPINWEISHENGBIAOZHUNDEBIAOSHIFANGFAYIZHI,SHUJUDEJISUANHEQUZHIYINGZUNXUNYOUXIAOSHUZIFAZEJISHUZIQUSHEGUIZE。

广东11选5JIANYANGUOCHENGZHONGYINGYANGEANZHAOBIAOZHUNZHONGGUIDINGDEFENXIBUZHOUJINXINGJIANYAN,DUISHIYANZHONGDEBUANQUANYINSU(ZHONGDU、BAOZHA、FUSHI、SHAOSHANGDENG)YINGYOUFANGHUCUOSHI。LIHUAJIANYANSHIYANSHISHIXINGFENXIZHILIANGKONGZHI,LIHUAJIANYANSHIYANSHIZAIJIANLILIANGHAOJISHUGUIFANDEJICHUSHANG,CEDINGDEFANGFAYINGYOUJIANCHUXIAN、JINGMIDU、ZHUNQUEDU、HUIZHIBIAOZHUNQUXIANDESHUJUDENGJISHUCANSHU。JIANYANRENYUANYINGTIANXIEHAOJIANYANJILU。