【检测】超全面丨常做微生物实验,这些注意事项要谨记

     

一、无菌操作要求

广东11选51.JIEZHONGXIJUNSHIBIXUCHUANGONGZUOFU、DAIGONGZUOMAO。

广东11选52.JINXINGJIEZHONGSHIPINYANGPINSHI,BIXUCHUANZHUANYONGDEGONGZUOFU、MAOJITUOXIE,YINGFANGZAIWUJUNSHIHUANCHONGJIAN,GONGZUOQIANJINGZIWAIXIANXIAODUHOUSHIYONG。

广东11选53.JIEZHONGSHIPINYANGPINSHI,YINGZAIJINWUJUNSHIQIANYONGFEIZAOXISHOU,RANHOUYONG75%JIUJINGMIANQIUJIANGSHOUCAGANJING。

4.JINXINGJIEZHONGSUOYONGDEXIGUAN,PINGMINJIPEIYANGJIDENGBIXUJINGXIAODUMIEJUN,DAKAIBAOZHUANGWEISHIYONGWANDEQIMIN,BUNENGFANGZHIHOUZAISHIYONG,JINSHUYONGJUYINGGAOYAMIEJUNHUOYONG95%JIUJINGDIANRANSHAOZHUOSANCIHOUSHIYONG。

5.CONGBAOZHUANGZHONGQUCHUXIGUANSHI,XIGUANJIANBUBUNENGCHUJIWAILUBUWEI,SHIYONGXIGUANJIEZHONGYUSHIGUANHUOPINGMINSHI,XIGUANJIANBUDECHUJISHIGUANHUOPINGMINBIAN。

6.JIEZHONGYANGPIN、ZHUANZHONGXIJUNBIXUZAIJIUJINGDENGQIANCAOZUO,JIEZHONGXIJUNHUOYANGPINSHI,XIGUANCONGBAOZHUANGZHONGQUCHUHOUJIDAKAISHIGUANSAIDOUYAOTONGGUOHUOYANXIAODU。

7.JIEZHONGHUANHEZHENZAIJIEZHONGXIJUNQIANYINGJINGHUOYANSHAOZHUOQUANBUJINSHUSI,BIYAOSHIHAIYAOSHAODAOHUANHEZHENYUGANDELIANJIECHU,JIEZHONGJIEHEJUNHELIEXINGJUNDEJIEZHONGHUANYINGZAIFEISHUIZHONGZHUFEI5min,ZAIJINGHUOYANSHAOZHUO。

8.XIGUANXIQUJUNYEHUOYANGPINSHI,YINGYONGXIANGYINGDEXIANGPITOUXIQU,BUDEZHIJIEYONGKOUXI。

二、无菌间使用要求

1、WUJUNJIANTONGXIANGWAIMIANDECHUANGHUYINGWEISHUANGCENGBOLI,BINGYAOMIFENG,BUDESUIYIDAKAI,BINGSHEYOUYUWUJUNJIANDAXIAOXIANGYINGDEHUANCHONGJIANJITUILAMEN,LINGSHEYOU0.5-0.7PINGFANGMIDEXIAOCHUANG,YIBEIJINRUWUJUNJIANHOUCHUANDIWUPIN。

广东11选52、WUJUNJIANNEIYINGBAOCHIQINGJIE,GONGZUOHOUYONG2%-3%MEIFENZAORONGYEXIAODU,CASHIGONGZUOTAIMIAN,BUDECUNFANGYUSHIYANWUGUANDEWUPIN。

3、WUJUNJIANSHIYONGQIANHOUYINGJIANGMENGUANJIN,DAKAIZIWAIDENG,RUCAIYONGSHINEIXUANDIAOZIWAIDENGXIAODUSHI,XU30WZIWAIDENG,JULIZAI1.0mCHU,ZHAOSHESHIJIANBUSHAOYU30min,SHIYONGZIWAIDENG,YINGZHUYIBUDEZHIJIEZAIZIWAIXIANXIACAOZUO,YIMIANYINQISUNSHANG,DENGGUANMEIGELIANGZHOUXUYONGJIUJINGMIANQIUQINGQINGCASHI,CHUQUSHANGMIANHUICHENHEYOUGOU,YIJIANSHAOZIWAIXIANCHUANTOUDEYINGXIANG。

4、CHULIHEJIEZHONGSHIPINBIAOBENSHI,JINRUWUJUNJIANCAOZUO,BUDESUIYICHURU,RUXUYAOCHUANDIWUPIN,KETONGGUOXIAOCHUANGCHUANDI。

广东11选55、ZAIWUJUNJIANNEIRUXUYAOANZHUANGKONGDIAOSHI,ZEYINGYOUGUOLVZHUANGZHI。

三、消毒灭菌要求

广东11选5WEISHENGWUJIANCEYONGDEBOLIQIMIN、JINSHUYONGJUJIPEIYANGJI、BEIWURANHEJIEZHONGDEPEIYANGWUDENG,BIXUJINGMIEJUNHOUFANGNENGSHIYONG。

(一)干热和湿热高压蒸气锅灭菌方法

1、灭菌前准备

(1)SUOYOUXUYAOMIEJUNDEWUPINSHOUXIANYINGQINGXILIANGGAN,BOLIQIMINRUXIGUAN、PINGMINYONGZHIBAOZHUANGYANMI,RUYONGJINSHUTONGYINGJIANGSHANGMIANTONGQIKONGDAKAI。

(2)ZHUANGPEIYANGJIDESANJIAOPINGSAI,YONGZHIBAOHAO,SHIGUANGAIHAOGAI,ZHUSHEQIXUJIANGGUANXINCHOUCHU,YONGSHABUBAOHAO。

2、装放

广东11选5(1)GANREMIEJUNQI:ZHUANGFANGWUPINBUKEGUOJI,QIEBUNENGJIECHUXIANGDESIBI。

(2)DAXINGGAOYAZHENGQIGUO::FANGZHIMIEJUNWUPINFENBIEBAOZHAHAO,ZHIJIEFANGRUXIAODUTONGNEI,WUPINZHIJIANBUNENGGUOJI。

3、设备检查

(1)检查门的开关是否灵活,橡皮圈有无损坏,是否平整。

(2)检查压力表蒸气排尽时是否停留在零位,关好门和盖,通蒸气或加热后,观察是式高压锅或立式压力蒸气灭菌器的使用应按下列步骤进行:

广东11选5①SHOUTISHIGAOYAGUOZAIZHUTINEIJIARU3LQINGSHUI,LISHIGAOYAGUOJIASHUI16L(ZHONGFUSHIYONGSHIYINGJIANGSHUILIANGBUZU,SHUIBIANHUNZHUOXUGENGHUAN)。

广东11选5②SHOUTISHIYALIGUOJIANGDINGGAISHANGDEPAIQIGUANCHARUXIAODUTONGNEIBIDEFANGGUANZHONG(WURUANGUANHUORUANGUANXIUSHIPOLIEDEMIEJUNQIBUDESHIYONG)。

③GAIHAODINGGAININGJIN,WUSHILOUQI;ZHIMIEJUNQIYUHUOYUANSHANGJIARE,LISHIYALIGUOTONGSHANGDIANYUAN,BINGDAKAIDINGGAISHANGDEPAIQIFAFANGLELENGQI(SHUIFEITENGHOUPAIQI10-15min)。

④GUANBIPAIQIFA,SHIZHENGQIYASHANGSHENGDAOGUIDINGYAOQIU,BINGWEICHIGUIDINGSHIJIAN(ANMIEJUNWUPINXINGZHIYUYOUGUANQINGKUANGERDING)。

⑤DADAOGUIDINGSHIJIANHOU,DUIXUGANZAODEWUPIN,LIJIDAKAIPAIQIFAPAICHUZHENGQI,DAIYALIHUIFUDAOLINGSHI,ZIRANLENGQUEZHI60℃HOUKAIGAIQUWU,RUWEIYETIWUPIN,BUYAODAKAIPAIQIFA,ERYINGLIJIJIANGGUOQUCHUREYUAN,DAIZIRANLENGQUE,YALIHUIFUZHILING,WENDUJIANGDAO60℃YIXIAZAIKAIGAIQUWU,YIFANGTURANJIANYAYETIJULIEFEITENGHUORONGQIBAOPO。

(3)卧式压力锅蒸气灭菌器的使用按下列步骤进行:

①GUANJINGUOMEN,DAKAIJINQIFA,JIANGZHENGQIYINRUJIACENGJINXINGYURE,JIACENGNEILENGKONGQIJINGZUQIQIZIDONGPAICHU。

广东11选5②JIACENGDADAOYUDINGWENDUHOU,DAKAIGUOSHIJINQIFA,JIANGZHENGQIYINRUGUOSHI,GUOSHINEILENGKONGQIJINGGUOSHIZUQIQIZIDONGPAICHU。

广东11选5③DAIGUOSHIDADAOGUIDINGDEYALIYUWENDUSHI,DIAOJIEJINQIFA,SHIBAOCHIHENGDINGZHI

④ZIRANHUORENGONGJIANGWENZHI60℃ZAIKAIMENQUWU,BUDESHIYONGKUAISUPAICHUZHENGQIFA,YIFANGTURANJIANGYA,YETIJULIEFEITENGHUORONGQIBAOPO。

⑤SHIYONGZIDONGCHENGXUKONGZHISHIYALIZHENGQIMIEJUNQI,ZAIFANGHAOWUPINGUANJINMENHOU,YINGGENJUWUPINLEIBIEANDONGXIANGYINGKAIGUAN,YIBIANANYAOQIUCHENGXUZIDONGJINXINGMIEJUN,MIEJUNSHIBIXULIYONGFUSHEYIBIAOJILUWENDUYUSHIJIANYIBEICHA,CAOZUOYAOQIUYINGYANGEANZHAOCHANGJIASHUOMINGSHUJINXING。

4、灭菌温度与时间

(1)GANREMIEJUNQIMIEJUNWENDU160℃,1.5-2h。

(2)YALIZHENGQIMIEJUNGUOMIEJUNWENDUYUSHIJIAN

(二)间歇灭菌方法

1、灭菌方法系利用不加压力的蒸气灭菌,某些物质经高压蒸气灭菌容易破坏,可用此法灭菌。

广东11选5(1)JIANGYUMIEJUNWUPINZHIYUGUONEI,GAISHANGDINGGAI,DAKAIPAISHUIKOU,SHIQINEIYUSHUIPAIJIN。

(2)GUANBIPAISHUIKOU,DAKAIJINQIMEN,GENJUXUYAOXIAODU10~20min。

(3)MIEJUNWANBIGUANBIJINQIMEN,QUCHUWUPINDAILENGZHISHIWENWENDU,FANGRU37℃WENXIANGGUOYE,CIRIRENGANSHANGSHUFANGFAXIAODU,RUCISANCI,JIKEDADAOMIEJUNMUDE。

2、血清凝固器使用方法,培养基中含有血清或鸡蛋特殊成份时,因高热会破坏其营养成份,故用低温,可使血清凝固,又可达到灭菌目的。

(1)ZAISHIYONGGAIFAMIEJUNDEXUEQINGDENGFENZHUANGSHI,XUYANGEZUNSHOUWUJUNCAOZUO,SHIGUAN、PINGMINYEJINGMIEJUNHOUSHIYONG。

广东11选5(2)JIANGPEIYANGJIANYAOQIUSHICHENGXIEMIANHUOGAOCENG,JIAZUSHUIHOU,JIESHANGDIANYUAN,SHENGWEN75~90℃1hMIEJUN,FANG37℃WENXIANGGUOYE,ZAIRUCIMIEJUNSANCI。

3、煮沸消毒:可用煮锅或煮沸消毒器,水沸腾后再煮5~15min,也可在水中加入2%石炭酸煮沸5min,加入0.02%甲醛,80℃煮60min均可达到灭菌目的,但选用煮沸消毒的增消剂时,应注意对物品的腐蚀性。

4、灭菌处理:广东11选5灭菌后物品,按正常情况已属无菌,从灭菌器中取出应仔细检查放置,以免再度污染。

(1)WUPINQUCHU,SUIJIJIANCHABAOZHUANGDEWANZHENGXING,RUOYOUPOHUAIHUOMIANSAITUODIAO,BUKEZUOWEIWUJUNWUPINSHIYONG。

广东11选5(2)QUCHUDEWUPIN,RUWEIBAOZHUANGYOUMINGXIANDESHUIJINZHE,BUKEZUOWEIWUJUNWUPINSHIYONG。

(3)PEIYANGJIHUOSHIJIDENG,YINGJIANCHASHIFOUFUHEDADAOMIEJUNHOUDESEZEHUOZHUANGTAI,WEIDADAOZHEYINGFEIQI。

广东11选5(4)QIBISHIRONGQI,ZAIQUCHUSHIYINGJIANGSHAIKONGGUANBI。

(5)QUCHUDEWUPINDIAOLUOZAIDIHUOWUFANGBUJIEZHEICHU,HUOZHANYOUSHUIYE,JUNSHIWEISHOUDAOWURAN,BUKEZUOWEIWUJUNWUPINSHIYONG。

广东11选5(6)QUCHUDEHEGEMIEJUNWUPIN,YINGCUNFANGYUZHUZANGSHIHUOFANGCHENJUNEI,YANJINYUWEIMIEJUNWUPINHUNFANG。

(7)FANSHUHEGEWUPIN,YINGBIAOYOUMIEJUNRIQIJIYOUXIAOQIXIAN。

(8)MEIPIMIEJUNCHULIWANCHENGHOU,JILUMIEJUNPINMING、SHULIANG、WENDU、SHIJIAN、CAOZUOZHE。

四、有毒有菌污物处理要求

广东11选5WEISHENGWUSHIYANSUOYONGSHIYANQICAI、PEIYANGWUDENGWEIJINGXIAODUCHULI,YILVBUDEDAICHUSHIYANSHI。

1、JINGPEIYANGDEWURANCAILIAOJIFEIQIWUYINGFANGZAIYANMIDERONGQIHUOTIESIKUANGNEI,BINGJIZHONGCUNFANGZAIZHIDINGDIDIAN,DAITONGYIJINXINGGAOYAMIEJUN。

广东11选52、JINGWEISHENGWUWURANDEPEIYANGWU,BIXUJING121℃30minGAOYAMIEJUN。

3、RANJUNHOUDEXIGUAN,SHIYONGHOUFANGRU5%MEIFENZAORONGYEHUOSHITANSUANYEZHONG,ZUISHAOJINPAO24h(XIAODUYETIBUDEDIYUJINPAODEGAODU)ZAIJING121℃30minGAOYAMIEJUN。

4、TUPIANRANSECHONGXIPIANDEYETI,YIBANKEZHIJIECHONGRUXIASHUIDAO,LIEXINGJUNDECHONGXIYEBIXUCHONGZAISHAOBEIZHONG,JINGGAOYAMIEJUNHOUFANGKEDAORUXIASHUIDAO,RANSEDEBOPIANFANGRU5%MEIFENZAORONGYEZHONGJINPAO24hHOU,ZHUFEIXIDI。ZUONINGJISHIYANYONGDEBOPIANHUOPINGMIN,BIXUGAOYAMIEJUNHOUXIDI。

广东11选55、DASUIDEPEIYANGWU,LIJIYONG5%MEIFENZAORONGYEHUOSHITANSUANYEPENSAHEJINPAOBEIWURANBUWEI,JINPAOBANXIAOSHIHOUZAICASHIGANJING。

WURANDEGONGZUOFUHUOJINXINGLIEXINGSHIYANSUOCHUANDEGONGZUOFU、MAO、KOUZHAODENG,YINGFANGRUZHUANYONGXIAODUDAINEI,JINGGAOYAMIEJUNHOUFANGNENGXIDI。

五、培养基制备要求

PEIYANGJIZHIBEIDEZHILIANGJIANGZHIJIEYINGXIANGWEISHENGWUSHENGZHANG。YINWEIGEZHONGWEISHENGWUDUIQIYINGYANGYAOQIUBUWANQUANXIANGTONG,PEIYANGMUDEDEBUTONG,GEZHONGPEIYANGJIZHIBEIYAOQIURUXIA:

广东11选51、GENJUPEIYANGJIPEIFANGDECHENGFENANLIANGCHENGQU,RANHOURONGYUZHENGLIUSHUIZHONG,ZAISHIYONGQIANDUIYINGYONGDESHIJIYAOPINYINGJINXINGZHILIANGJIANYAN。

广东11选52、PHCEDINGJIDIAOJIE:PHCEDINGYAOZAIPEIYANGJILENGZHISHIWENSHIJINXING,YINZAIREHUOLENGDEQINGKUANGXIA,QIPHYOUYIDINGCHAYI,DANGCEDINGHAOSHI,ANJISUANLIANGJIARUJIANHUOSUANHUNYUNHOU,YINGZAICESHIYICI。PEIYANGJIPHZHIYIDINGYAOZHUNQUE,FOUZEHUIYINGXIANGWEISHENGWUDESHENGZHANGHUOYINGXIANGJIEGUODEGUANCHA。DANXUZHUYIYINGAOYAMIEJUNKEYINGXIANGYIXIEPEIYANGJIDEPHJIANGDIHUOSHENGGAO,GUBUYIMIEJUNYALIGUOGAOHUOCISHUTAIDUO,YIMIANYINGXIANGPEIYANGJIDEZHILIANG,ZHISHIJI、QUYANGDANSUANNA、QIONGZHIDENGYIBANZAIDIAOWANPHHOUZAIJIARU。

3、PEIYANGJIXUBAOCHICHENGQING,BIANYUGUANCHAXIJUNDESHENGZHANGQINGKUANG,PEIYANGJIJIAREZHUFEIHOU,KEYONGTUOZHIMIANHUAHUORONGBUGUOLV,YICHUQUCHENDIANWU,BIYAOSHIKEYONGJIDANBAICHENGQINGCHULI,SUOYONGQIONGZHITIAOYAOYUXIANXIJINGLIANGGANHOUSHIYONG,BIMIANYINQIONGZHIHANZAZHIERYINGXIANGTOUMINGDU。

4、SHENGZHUANGPEIYANGJIBUYIYONGTIE、TONGDENGRONGQI,SHIYONGXIJINGDEZHONGXINGYINGZHIBOLIRONGQIWEIHAO。

5、PEIYANGJIDEMIEJUNJIYAODADAOWANQUANMIEJUNMUDE,YOUYAOZHUYIBUYINJIAREERJIANGDIQIYINGYANGJIAZHI,YIBAN121℃15minJIKE,RUWEIHANYOUBUNAIGAOREWUZHIDEPEIYANGJIRUTANGLEI、XUEQING、MINGJIAODENG,ZEYINGCAIYONGDIWENMIEJUNHUOJIANXIEFAMIEJUN,YIXIEBUNENGJIAREDESHIJIRUYADISUANJIA、LUANHUANG、TTC、KANGJUNSUDENG,DAIJICHUQIONGZHIGAOYAMIEJUNHOULIANGZHI50℃ZUOYOUZAIJIARU。

6、MEIPIPEIYANGJIZHIBEIHAOHOU,YINGZUOWUJUNSHENGZHANGSHIYANJISUOJIANJUNZHUSHENGZHANGSHIYAN。RUGUOSHISHENGHUAPEIYANGJI,SHIYONGBIAOZHUNJUNZHUJIEZHONGPEIYANG,GUANCHASHENGHUAFANYINGJIEGUO,YINGCHENGZHENGCHANGFANYING,PEIYANGJIBUYINGZHUCUNGUOJIU,BIYAOSHIKEZHI4℃BINGXIANGCUNFANG。

7、MUQIANGEZHONGGANZAOPEIYANGJIJIAODUO,MEIPIXUYONGBIAOZHUNJUNZHUJINXINGSHENGZHANGSHIYANHUOSHENGHUAFANYINGGUANCHA,GEZHONGPEIYANGJIYONGXIANGYINGJUNZHUSHENGZHANGSHIYANLIANGHAOHOUFANGKEYINGYONG,XINGOUJINDEHUOCUNFANGGUOJIUDEGANZAOPEIYANGJI,ZAIPEIZHISHIYEYINGCEPH,SHIYONGSHIXUGENJUCHANPINSHUOMINGSHUYONGLIANGHEFANGFAJINXING。

8、MEIPIZHIBEIDEPEIYANGJISUOYONGHUAXUESHIJI、MIEJUNQINGKUANGJIJUNZHUSHENGZHANGSHIYANJIEGUO、ZHIZUORENYUANDENGYINGZUOHAOJILU,YIBEICHAXUN。

六、样品采集及处理要求

广东11选51、SUOCAIJIDEJIANYANYANGPINYIDINGYAOJUYOUDAIBIAOXING,CAIYANGSHIYINGSHOUXIANDUIGAIPISHIPINYUANLIAO、JIAGONG、YUNSHU、ZHUZANGFANGFATIAOJIAN、ZHOUWEIHUANJINGWEISHENGZHUANGKUANGDENGJINXINGXIANGXIDIAOCHA,JIANCHASHIFOUYOUWURANYUANCUNZAI。

2、GENJUSHIPINDEZHONGLEIJISHULIANG,CAIYANGSHULIANGJIFANGFAYINGANBIAOZHUNJIANYANFANGFADEYAOQIUJINXING。

3、CAIYANGYINGZHUYIWUJUNCAOZUO,RONGQIBIXUMIEJUN,BIMIANHUANJINGZHONGWEISHENGWUWURAN,RONGQIBUDESHIYONGMEIFENZAORONGYE,YONGXINJIEERMIE、JIUJINGDENGXIAODUYAOWUMIEJUN,GENGBUNENGHANYOUCILEIXIAODUYAOWUHUOKANGSHENGSULEIYAOWU,YIBIMIANSHASIYANGPINZHONGDEWEISHENGWU,SUOYONGJIAN、DAO、CHIYONGJUYEXUMIEJUNFANGKEYINGYONG。

广东11选54、YANGPINCAIJIHOUYINGLIJISONGWANGJIANYANSHIJINXINGJIANYAN,SONGJIANGUOCHENGZHONGYIBANBUCHAOGUO3h,RULUCHENGJIAOYUAN,KEBAOCUNZAI1~5℃HUANJINGZHONG,RUXULENGDONGZHE,ZEZAIDONGCUNZHUANGTAIXIASONGJIAN。

5、JIANYANSHISHOUDAOYANGPINHOU,JINXINGDENGJI(YANGPINMINGCHENG、SONGJIANDANWEI、SHULIANG、RIQI、BIANHAODENG),GUANCHAYANGPINDEWAIGUAN,RUGUOFAXIANYOUXIALIEQINGKUANGZHIYIZHE,KEJUJUEJIANYAN。

(1)YANGPINJINGGUOTESHUGAOYA、ZHUFEIHUOQITAFANGFASHAJUNZHE,SHIQUDAIBIAOYUANSHIPINJIANYANYIYIZHE。

广东11选5(2)PING、DAIZHUANGSHIPINYIQIKAIZHE,SHUROUJIQIZHIPIN、SHUQINDENGSHIPINYIZHESUIWANZHENGZHE,JISHIQUYUANSHIPINXINGZHUANGZHE(SHIWUZHONGDUYANGPINCHUWAI)。

广东11选5(3)ANGUIDINGCAIYANGSHULIANGBUZUZHE。

DUISONGJIANFUHEYAOQIUDEYANGPIN,JIANYANSHISHOUDAOHOU,YINGLIJIJINXINGJIANYAN,RUGUOTIAOJIANBUJUBEI,YINGZHI4℃BINGXIANGCUNFANG,JISHIZHUNBEICHUANGZAOTIAOJIAN,RANHOUJINXINGJIANYAN。

广东11选56、YANGPINJIANYANSHI,GENJUQIBUTONGXINGZHUANG,JINXINGSHIDANGCHULI。

(1)YETIYANGPINJIEZHONGSHI,YINGCHONGFENHUNHEJUNYUN,ANLIANGXIQUJINXINGJIEZHONG。

(2)GUTIYANGPIN,YONGMIEJUNDAO、JIANQUQIBUTONGBUWEIGONG25g,ZHIYU225mlMIEJUNSHENGLIYANSHUIHUOQITARONGYEZHONG,YONGJUNZHIQIJIAOSUIHUNYUNHOU,ANLIANGXIQUJIEZHONG。

(3)PING、DAIZHUANGSHIPINYINGYONGMIEJUNCAOZUOQIKAI,GENJUXINGZHUANGXUANZESHANGSHUFANGFACHULIHOUJIEZHONG。

七、记录和报告的要求

1、JIANYANSHISHOUDAOYANGPINHOU,SHOUXIANJINXINGWAIGUANJIANYAN,JISHIANZHAOGUOJIABIAOZHUNJIANYANFANGFAJINXINGJIANYAN,JIANYANGUOCHENGZHONGYAORENZHEN、FUZE、YANGEJINXINGWUJUNCAOZUO,BIMIANHUANJINGZHONGWEISHENGWUWURAN。

2、YANGPINJIANYANGUOCHENGZHONGSUOYONGFANGFA、CHUXIANDEXIANXIANGHEJIEGUODENGJUNYAOYONGWENZIXIECHUSHIYANJILU,YIZUOWEIDUIJIEGUOFENXI、PANDINGDEYIJU,JILUYAOQIUXIANGXI、QINGCHU、ZHENSHI、KEGUAN、BUDETUGAIHEWEIZAO。